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Mechanism of Overwintering in Trees

  • Keita Arakawa
  • Jun Kasuga
  • Naoki Takata
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1081)

Abstract

Boreal trees possess very high freezing resistance, which is induced by short-day length and low temperatures, in order to survive severe subzero temperatures in winter. During autumn, cooperation of photoreceptors and circadian clock system perceiving photoperiod shortening results in growth cessation, dormancy development, and first induction of freezing resistance. The freezing resistance is further enhanced by subsequent low temperature during seasonal cold acclimation with concomitant changes in various morphological and physiological features including accumulation of sugars and late embryogenesis abundant proteins. The mechanism of adaptation to freezing temperatures differs depending on the type of tissue in boreal trees. For example, bark, cambium, and leaf cells tolerate freezing-induced dehydration by extracellular freezing, whereas xylem parenchyma cells avoid intracellular freezing by deep supercooling. In addition, dormant buds in some trees respond by extraorgan freezing. Boreal trees have evolved overwintering mechanisms such as dormancy and high freezing resistance in order to survive freezing temperatures in winter.

Keywords

Tree Cold acclimation Dormancy Day length Temperature sensing Extracellular freezing Deep supercooling Extraorgan freezing 

Abbreviations

ABA

Abscisic acid

CCA1

Circadian clock associated 1

CO

Constans

CRY

Cryptochrome

DREB1/CBF

Dehydration-responsive element-binding 1/C-repeat binding factor

DTA

Differential thermal analysis

EC

Evening complex

ELF

Early flowering

ER

Endoplasmic reticulum

FT

Flowering locus T

FTL

Flowering locus T/terminal flower 1-like

LD

Long day

LHY

Late elongated hypocotyl

LT

Low temperature

LTE

Low-temperature exotherm

LUX

Lux arrhythmo

MPL

Multiplex lamellae

PHY

Phytochrome

PRR

Pseudo-response regulator

SD

Short day

TOC1

Timing of CAB2 expression 1

WT

Wild type

XRPC

Xylem ray parenchyma cells

Notes

Acknowledgments

Some studies cited in this chapter were partially supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science under a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (KAKENHI) [grant numbers: 15H04615, 23580453, 20580360 (KA)].

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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Faculty and Graduate School of AgricultureHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan
  2. 2.Research Center for Global AgromedicineObihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary MedicineObihiroJapan
  3. 3.Forest Research and Management OrganizationForestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Forest Bio-Research CenterHitachiJapan

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