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Dorsal Spine Clinical Examination

  • S. S. Dhatt
  • S. Siva Swaminathan
  • S. R Karthick
  • K. Pattabiraman
Chapter

Abstract

The thoracic spine is the most rigid part of the vertebral column because of the associated rib cage which in turn protects the heart and lungs. The thoracic spine, being one of the primary curves, exhibit a mild kyphosis (posterior curvature), the cervical and lumbar spine, being secondary curves, exhibit a slight lordosis or anterior curvature (Figs. 1 and 2).

References

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    McKenzie RA. The cervical and thoracic spine: mechanical diagnosis and therapy. Waikanae, New Zealand: Spinal; 1981.Google Scholar
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    Evans RC. Illustrated essentials in orthopaedic physical assessment. St. Louis: C. V. Mosby; 1994.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. S. Dhatt
    • 1
  • S. Siva Swaminathan
    • 2
  • S. R Karthick
    • 1
  • K. Pattabiraman
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of OrthopaedicsPGIMERChandigarhIndia
  2. 2.Apollo KH HospitalVelloreIndia
  3. 3.Department of OrthopedicsAIIMSNew DelhiIndia

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