Examination of a Paediatric Patient

  • G. Nirmal Raj
  • Balaji Saibaba


Paediatric orthopaedic clinical evaluation by means history taking and examination are far different from that of an adult. The child’s birth history, developmental history and family history have a significant bearing on the diagnosis of certain childhood orthopaedic problems. Most of the time, the history is elicited from the parents. Painless conditions like a deformity or a limp are brought to the clinician’s attention only when the parents start noticing them. Hence, the exact time of onset of symptoms is often unknown.


  1. 1.
    Staheli L. Practice of paediatric orthopaedics. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Miller MD. Review of orthopaedics. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2012.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Herring JA. Tachdjian’s pediatric orthopaedics, vol. 1. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier; 2008.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Weinstein SL, Flynn JM. Lovell and Winter’s pediatric orthopaedics. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Canale ST, Beaty JH, Campbell WC. Campbell’s operative orthopaedics, vol. 2. 12th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier/Mosby; 2013.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Nirmal Raj
    • 1
  • Balaji Saibaba
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of OrthopaedicsPGIMERChandigarhIndia
  2. 2.Billroth HospitalChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations