The Importance of Plant-Microbe Interaction for the Bioremediation of Dyes and Heavy Metals

  • Varsha Dogra
  • Gurpreet KaurEmail author
  • Rajeev KumarEmail author
  • Chander Prakash


Heavy metals and dyes are released from different industries which cause adverse effects on the environment. It is a persistent problem because metals are not biodegradable. Conventional treatment of heavy metals and dyes is not cost-effective and also produces large amounts of hazardous waste and mud. Plant-microbe synergism is an essential portion of our earthly bionetwork; recently many researchers have explored this field to understand the plant-microbe-heavy metal/dye interactions. These interactions have many applications in the field of phytoremediation technology. The technique rhizorestitution is a particular type of phytoremediation that can solve the problems of sites contaminated with heavy metals and dyes. Rhizospheric and endophytic microbiome connected with plant system have the potential of biodegrading the organic compounds in the contaminated site. Potential metabolites such as 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), organic acids, some volatiles, etc. are synthesized by plant-associated microorganisms (e.g., mycorrhizae, bacteria); these metabolites are involved in many biogeochemical progressions which operate in rhizoplane and rhizospheric zone. Plant-associated microbes have acidifying reduction and chelating power. Plant-microbe interactions enhance the uptake of heavy metals using many biological and geochemical processes, which mainly includes uptake, translocation, immobilization, chelation, precipitation, solubilization, volatilization, and complex formation of heavy metals, and finally lead to phytorestitution. In general, the plant-microbe interaction increases the effectiveness of phytoremediation process by altering the heavy metal gathering or accumulation and dye in plant tissue parts. In this chapter, we are focusing on the different types of plant-microbe interactions for the bioremediation of synthetic dyes and different types of heavy metals. Focus will be on different plant-microbe interaction-based bioremediation methods to eliminate the dyes and heavy metals in polluted sites.



Gurpreet Kaur is thankful to the Department of Science and Technology for Award of Inspire Faculty (IFA-12-CH-41) and PURSE Grant II. Rajeev Kumar is thankful to DST, SERB/F/8171/2015-16, as well as UGC (F. No. 194-2/2016 IC) for providing financial support. Varsha Dogra is thankful to UGC for Junior Research Fellowship.


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environment StudiesPanjab UniversityChandigarhIndia
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry and Centre of Advanced studies in ChemistryPanjab UniversityChandigarhIndia
  3. 3.Department of ChemistryM.L.S.M. CollegeSunder NagarIndia

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