Advertisement

Making a “New Culture” Through Translation

  • Limin Chi
Chapter
Part of the New Frontiers in Translation Studies book series (NFTS)

Abstract

The New Culture Movement of the mid-1910s and mid-1920s was referred to as the Chinese Renaissance (Zhongguo de wenyi fuxing) by Hu Shi and other participants at the time, being a multi-faceted intellectual and cultural movement frequently historicized as the “awakening” to individuality, freedom and other modern values associated with a Western democratic society. The movement was conducted through publications, in which translations from foreign works featured prominently. The producers and consumers of these publications were people who had been exposed to modern education in Western style schools in China and at universities overseas. In their teens and early 20s, they were immensely influenced by the modern ideas and concepts they acquired through the reading of late Qing translations of foreign works and modern education in general. They were products of important historical changes which enabled intercultural experience and new imaginings of the Chinese culture. This chapter traces the trajectory of identity formation of leading New Culture intellectuals, concentrating on their exposure to Western knowledge and their involvement in social and literary activism by way of translation practice in the 1900s and early 1910s.

References

  1. A, Ying. 1990. Zhongguo xin wenxue daxi: Shiliao suoyin [A Compendium of New Chinese Literature: Index of Historical Material]. Taipei: Yeqiang chuabanshe.Google Scholar
  2. Chan, Leo Tak-hung. 2001. What’s Modern in Chinese Translation Theory? Lu Xun and the Debates on Literalism and Foreignization in the May Fourth Period. TTR 14 (2): 195–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chen, Duxiu. 1917. Wenxue geming lun (On Literary Revolution). New Youth 2(6).Google Scholar
  4. Chen, Wanxiong. 1979. Xin wenhua yundong qian de Chen Duxiu [Chen Duxiu Before the New Culture Movement]. Hong Kong: The Chinese University of Hong Kong Press.Google Scholar
  5. Chen, Duxiu. 1984a. Chen Duxiu wenzhang xuanbian [Selected Readings of Chen Duxiu]. Beijing: Joint Publishing.Google Scholar
  6. Chen, Song. 1984b. Wusi qianhou dongxi wenhua wenti lunzhan wenxuan [Collection of Polemics on East-West Cultural Issues]. Beijing: Zhongguo shehui kexue chubanshe.Google Scholar
  7. Chen, Xuhui. 1992. Jindai Zhongguo shehui de xinchendaixie [The Metabolism of Early Modern Chinese Society]. Shanghai: Renmin chubanshe.Google Scholar
  8. Chen, Duxiu. 1993. Chen Duxiu zhuzuo xuan [Selected Works of Chen Duxiu]. Shanghai: Shanghai renmin chubanshe.Google Scholar
  9. Chen, Pingyuan. 1997. Chen Pingyuan xiaoshuo shilun ji [Collection of Chen Pingyuan’s Treatises on the History of Fiction]. Shijiazhuang: Hebei renmin chubanshe.Google Scholar
  10. Chen, Fukang. 2000/1996/1992. Zhongguo yixue lilun shigao [Outline of the History of Chinese Translation Theories]. Shanghai: Waiyu jiaoyu chubanshe.Google Scholar
  11. Chen, Xuexun, and Zhengping Tian. 1991. Zhongguo jindai jiaoyu shi ziliao huibian – Liuxue jiaoyu [Collected Materials for the History of Education in Early Modern China – Overseas Education]. Shanghai: Shanghai jiaoyu chubanshe.Google Scholar
  12. Davies, Gloria. 2007. Worrying about China: The Language of Chinese Critical Inquiry. Cambridge, MA/London: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gimpel, Denise. 2015. Chen Hengzhe: A Life Between Orthodoxies. London: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  14. Grieder, Jerome. 2000/1970. Hu Shih and the Chinese Renaissance: Liberalism in the Chinese Revolution, 1917–1937. Bridgewater: Replica Books.Google Scholar
  15. Gu, Edward X. 2001. Who Was Mr Democracy? The May Fourth Discourse of Populist Democracy and the Radicalization of Chinese Intellectuals (1915–1922). Modern Asian Studies 35: 589–621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gunn, Edward. 1991. Rewriting Chinese: Style and Innovation in Twentieth Century Chinese Prose. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Guo, Moruo. 1978. Moruo zizhuan (diyijuan): Shaonian shidai [Moruo’s Autobiography (I): My Juvenile Days]. Hong Kong: Joint Publishing.Google Scholar
  18. Haugen, David M. 2006. China. Detroit: Greenhaven Press.Google Scholar
  19. Heaton, Jenine. 2012. Gained in Translation: Ezra Pound, Hu Shi and Literary Revolution. Journal of Cultural Interaction in East Asia 3: 35–54.Google Scholar
  20. Henderson, Archibald. 1911. Interpreters of Life and the Modern Spirit. London: Duckworth and Co.Google Scholar
  21. Hu, Shi. 2003. Hu Shi quanji [Complete Works of Hu Shi]. Hefei: Anhui jiaoyu chubanshe.Google Scholar
  22. Huang, Guiyou. 1997. Whitmanism, Imagism, and Modernism in China and America. Selinsgrove/London: Susquehanna University Press/Associated University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Larrain, Jorge. 1994. Ideology and Cultural Identity: Modernity and the Third World Presence. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  24. Lee, Feigon. 1983. Chen Duxiu, Founder of the Chinese Communist Party. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Li, Xisuo. 1997. Jiawu zhan hou wushi nian jian liuri xuesheng de Riben guan jiqi yingxiang [Chinese Students’ Views on Japan and Their Influence in the Fifty Years After the First Sino-Japanese War]. Shehui kexue yanjiu 1997(1): 43–56.Google Scholar
  26. ———. 2007. Qingmo liu Ri xuesheng renshu xiaokao [A Brief Investigation of the Number of Chinese Students in Japan in the Late Qing]. In Zhongguo liuxueshi lungao [A History of Overseas Education in China], 248–253. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju.Google Scholar
  27. Li, Zehou. 2008. Zhongguo jindai sixiang shilun [Modern Chinese Intellectual History]. Beijing: Joint Publishing.Google Scholar
  28. Li, Huaxing, and Zuhuai Chen. 1996. Liuxue jiaoyu yu jindai Zhongguo [Overseas Education and Modern China]. Shilin [Historic Review] 1996(3): 41–52.Google Scholar
  29. Li, Xisuo. 2006. Jindai liuxuesheng yu zhongwai wenhua (Overseas students in early modern period and chinese and foreign cultures). Tianjin: Tianjin jiaoyu chubanshe.Google Scholar
  30. Liang, Qichao. 1902. Shaojie xinzhu – Yuanfu [Introducing a New Book – Yuanfu]. Xinmin congbao [The New Citizen’s Gazette] (1). (February 1902).Google Scholar
  31. ———. 2002. Bianfa tongyi [A General Discussion of Reform]. Beijing: Huaxia chubanshe.Google Scholar
  32. Liang, Shiqiu. 1988. Langman de he gudian de [The Romantic and the Classical]. Beijing: Renmin wenxue chubanshe.Google Scholar
  33. Liu, Lydia. 1995. Translingual Practice: Literature, National Culture, and Translated Modernity – China, 1900–1927. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Lu, Xun. 1981. Lu Xun quanji [Complete Works of Lu Xun]. Beijing: Renmin wenxue chubanshe.Google Scholar
  35. ———. 2008. Zhaohua xishi [Dawn Blossoms Plucked at Dusk]. Beijing: Renmin wenxue chubanshe.Google Scholar
  36. ———. 2009. Nahan [Call to Arms]. Hong Kong: Joint Publishing.Google Scholar
  37. Lu, Xun, and Zuoren Zhou. 2006. Yuwai xiaoshuo ji [Collection of Short Stories from Abroad]. Beijing: Xinxing chubanshe.Google Scholar
  38. Mak, George Kam Wah. 2017. Protestant Bible Translation and Mandarin as the National Language of China. Leiden: Brill.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mu, Mutian. 1985. Guanyu wusi geren de huiyi [My Recollections of May Fourth]. In Mu Mutian shiwen ji [Collected Poems and Essays of Mu Mutian], eds. Cai Qingfu and Mu Lili, 36–49. Changchun: Shidai wenji chubanshe.Google Scholar
  40. Ng, Mau-sang. 1988. The Russian Hero in Modern Chinese Fiction. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  41. Pusey, James Reeve. 1998. Lu Xun and Revolution. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  42. Ouyang, Zhesheng., ed. 1998. Hu Shi wenji [Selected Works of Hu Shi]. Beijing: Beijing daxue chubanshe.Google Scholar
  43. Qian, Xuantong. 1919. Three Important Issues in New Literature [Guanyu xin wenxue de sanjian yaoshi]. New Youth 6(6).Google Scholar
  44. Qian, Zhongshu. 1994. Lin Shu’s Translation [Lin Shu de fanyi]. Shanghai: Guji chubanshe.Google Scholar
  45. Ren, Shukun. 2009. Wusi shiqi waiguo wenxue fanyi yanjiu [An Investigation of Literary Translation during the May Fourth Period]. Beijing: Renmin chubanshe.Google Scholar
  46. Ren, Jianshu, Tongmo Zhang, and Xinzhong Wu, eds. 1993. Chen Duxiu zhuzuo xuan [Selected Chen Duxiu’s Works]. Shanghai: Renmin chubanshe.Google Scholar
  47. Saneto, Keishu. 1983. Zhongguoren liuxue Riben shi [History of Chinese Students Studying in Japan]. Translated into Chinese by Tam Yue-Him, and Lin Qiyan. Beijing: Joint Publishing.Google Scholar
  48. Schwarcz, Vera. 1986. The Chinese Enlightenment: Intellectuals and the Legacy of the May Fourth Movement of 1919. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  49. Shih, Shu-mei. 2001. The Lure of the Modern: Writing Modernism in Semicolonial China, 1917–1937. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  50. Shu, Xincheng. 1926. Jindai Zhongguo liuxue shi [Early Modern History of Overseas Study]. Shanghai: Zhonghua shuju.Google Scholar
  51. Sienkiewicz, Henryk. 1893. Yanko the Musician and Other Stories. Trans. Jeremiah Curtin. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.Google Scholar
  52. Simon, Bernd. 2004. Identity in Modern Society: A Social Psychological Perspective. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Tai, Wai-chin. 2007. Chen Duxiu’s Conversion from a Liberal Democrat to a Marxist-Leninist: Motivations and Impact. Tamkang Journal of International Affairs 11 (1): 115–148.Google Scholar
  54. Taylor, Charles. 1989. Sources of the Self: The Making of the Modern Identity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Toury, Gideon. 1995. Descriptive Translation Studies and Beyond. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Co.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. ———. 1999. A Handful of Paragraphs on Translation and ‘Norms’. In Translation and Norms, ed. Christina Schäffner, 9–31. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters Ltd.Google Scholar
  57. Uchida, Michio. 2010. Lin Qinnan de wenxue pinglun [Lin Qinnan’s Literary Critiques]. In Lin Shu yanjiu ziliao [Material for the Study of Lin Shu], eds. Xue Suizhi and Zhang Juncai, 254–273. Fuzhou: Fujian renmin chubanshe.Google Scholar
  58. Wang, Y.C. 1966. Chinese Intellectuals and the West, 1872–1949. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  59. Wang, Huanchen. 1980. Liuxue jiaoyu – Zhongguo liuxue jiaoyu shiliao [Overseas Education – Historical Data for Overseas Education]. Taiwan: Guoli bianyiguan.Google Scholar
  60. Wang, Qisheng. 1992. Zhongguo liuxuesheng de lishi guiji, 1872–1949 [The Historical Trajectory of the Chinese Students in Foreign Countries (1872–1949)]. Wuhan: Hubei jiaoyu chubanshe.Google Scholar
  61. Wang, Xiaoyuan. 2010. Fanyi huayu yu yishi xingtai: Zhongguo 1895–1911 nian wenxue fanyi yanjiu [Translation Discourse and Ideology: Literary Translation in China, 1895–1911]. Shanghai: Waiyu jiaoyu chubanshe.Google Scholar
  62. Wong, Lawrence Wang-chi. 2007/1999. Chongshi xin, da, ya: Ershi shiji Zhongguo fanyi yanjiu [Reinterpreting Faithfulness, Comprehensibility and Elegance: A Study of Translation in Twentieth-Century China]. Beijing: Qinghua daxue chubanshe.Google Scholar
  63. Xiao, Yishan. 1980. Qingdai tongshi [General History of the Qing Dynasty]. Taipei: The Commercial Press.Google Scholar
  64. Yang, Yi. 1986. Zhongguo xiandai xiaoshuo shi [History of Modern Chinese Fiction]. Beijing: Renmin wenxue chubanshe.Google Scholar
  65. Yang, Tianshi. 1995. Su Chen yiben Can Shijie yu jindai zaoqi de shehuizhuyi sichao [Su and Chen’s Translation of Les Misérables and Socialist Thought in the Early Modern Period]. Zhongguo shehui kexue yuan yanjiusheng yuan xuebao [Journal of the Graduate School of Chinese Social Science Academy] 6: 26–33.Google Scholar
  66. Yuan, Jin. 2014. Xin wenxue de xianqu: Ouhua baihuawen zai jindai de fasheng, yanbian he yingxiang [The Forerunner of New Literature: The Rise, Development and Influence of Europeanized Chinese Vernacular]. Shanghai: Fudan daxue chubanshe.Google Scholar
  67. Zhang, Juncai. 2007. Lin Shu pingzhuan [A Critical Biography of Lin Shu]. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju.Google Scholar
  68. Zhang, Dan, and Renzhi Wang. 1960. Xinhai geming qian shinian jian shilun xuanji [Collected Critiques Written in the Ten Years Prior to the 1911 Revolution]. Beijing: Joint Publishing.Google Scholar
  69. Zhao, Wenjing. 2006. Cultural Manipulation of Translation Activities: Hu Shi’s Rewritings and the Construction of a New Culture. Shanghai: Fudan daxue chubanshe.Google Scholar
  70. Zheng, Zhenduo. 1924. Eguo wenxueshi lue [A Concise History of Russian Literature]. Shanghai: The Commercial Press.Google Scholar
  71. Zhou, Zuoren. 1920. Diandi: Jindai mingjia duanpian xiaoshuo [Drops: Short Stories by Famous Modern Writers]. Beijing: Beijing daxue chubanshe.Google Scholar
  72. ———. 1969. Guadou ji [Melons and Beans]. Hong Kong: Shiyong shuju.Google Scholar
  73. ———. 1995. Yong ri ji [Endless Days]. Shijiazhuang: Hebei jiaoyu chubanshe.Google Scholar
  74. ———. 1998. Ziji de yuandi [My Own Garden]. Beijing: Renmin wenxue chubanshe.Google Scholar
  75. ———. 2001. Ouzhou wenxue shi [The Literary History of Europe]. Shijiazhuang: Hebei jiaoyu chubanshe.Google Scholar
  76. ———. 2002a. Zhitang huiyi lu [Memoirs of Zhitang] (I & II). Shijiazhuang: Hebei jiaoyu chubanshe.Google Scholar
  77. ———. 2002b. Lu Xun de qingnian shidai [Lu Xun’s Youthful Days]. Shijiazhuang: Hebei jiaoyu chubanshe.Google Scholar
  78. ———. 2005. Wo de zaxue [My Miscellaneous Learning]. Beijing: Beijing chubanshe.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Limin Chi
    • 1
  1. 1.Kiangsu-Chekiang CollegeHong KongHong Kong SAR

Personalised recommendations