Advertisement

The Quality and Quality Shifting of the Night Interruption Light Affect the Morphogenesis and Flowering in Floricultural Plants

  • Yoo Gyeong Park
  • Byoung Ryong Jeong
Chapter

Abstract

The effects of the quality of night interruption (NI) on the morphogenesis and flowering were investigated in Petunia hybrida Hort. “Easy Wave Pink” (qualitative long-day plant), Pelargonium × hortorum L.H. Bailey “Ringo 2000 Violet” (day-neutral plant), and Dendranthema grandiflorum “gaya yellow” (qualitative short-day plant). Plants were grown in a closed-type plant factory under a light intensity of 180 μmol·m−2·s−1 PPFD (photosynthetic photon flux density) provided by white (W) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) under a condition of either long day (LD, 16 h light/8 h dark), short day (SD, 10 h light/14 h dark), or SD with 4 h NI. NI was provided by 10 ± 3 μmol·m−2·s−1 PPFD.

In the first experiment, NI was provided by blue (NI-B), green (NI-G), red (NI-R), far-red (NI-Fr), or white (NI-W) LEDs. The shoot length and plant height of the petunia and the geranium were the greatest in NI-Fr, while those of the chrysanthemum were the greatest in LD. In the petunia, flowering was observed in LD, NI-G, NI-Fr, and NI-W. Flowering of the geranium was not affected by the night interruption light (NIL) quality, and all plants flowered in all treatments. Flowering of the chrysanthemum was observed in SD, NI-B, and NI-Fr. These results suggest that the morphogenesis, flowering, and transcriptional factors of these plants were highly affected by the quality of the NIL, especially in the chrysanthemum. Furthermore, NI-R or NI-W was the most suitable in the NI strategy of controlling the morphogenesis and flowering of the long-day plants during SD seasons.

In the second experiment, the quality of the NIL was shifted from one to another after the first 2 h in sets of two qualities among B, R, Fr, and W. LD and SD were used as the control. Twelve SD treatments with shifting of the NIL quality by LEDs were as follows: from blue to red (NI-BR), from red to blue (NI-RB), from red to far-red (NI-RFr), from far-red to red (NI-FrR), from blue to far-red (NI-BFr), from far-red to blue (NI-FrB), from white to blue (NI-WB), from blue to white (NI-BW), from far-red to white (NI-FrW), from white to far-red (NI-WFr), from red to white (NI-RW), and from white to red (NI-WR). The plant height of the chrysanthemum was greater in NI treatments that consisted of Fr than that in other NI treatments, and it was the least in NI-WB among the NI treatments. Flowering of the chrysanthemum was observed in NI-RB, NI-FrR, NI-BFr, NI-FrB, NI-WB, NI-FrW, NI-WFr, NI-WR, and SD and was especially pronounced in NI-BFr and NI-FrB. The photoperiod affected both the morphogenesis and flowering in the chrysanthemum. While the first NIL did not affect either the morphogenesis or the flowering, the second NIL significantly affected both.

Keywords

Day-neutral plant Flowering control Light quality Long-day plant Morphogenesis Short-day plant 

References

  1. Bagnall DJ, King RW, Hangarter RP (1996) Blue-light promotion of flowering is absent in hy4 mutants of Arabidopsis. Planta 200:278–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bunning E, Moser I (1969) Interference of moonlight with the photoperiodic measurement of time by plants, and their adaptive reaction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 62:1018–1022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Craig DS, Runkle ES (2012) Using LEDs to quantify the effect of the red to far-red ratio of night-interruption lighting on flowering of photoperiodic crops. Acta Hort (956):179–185Google Scholar
  4. Dougher TAO, Bugbee B (2004) Long-term blue light effects on the histology of lettuce and soybean leaves and stems. J Amer Soc Hort Sci 129:497–472Google Scholar
  5. Evans LT (1971) Flower induction and the florigen concept. Ann Rev Plant Physiol 22:365–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Folta KM, Spalding EP (2001) Unexpected roles for cryptochrome 2 and phototropin revealed by high-resolution analysis of blue light-mediated hypocotyl growth inhibition. Plant J 26:471–478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Franklin KA (2008) Shade avoidance. New Phytol 179:930–944CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Franklin KA, Quail PH (2010) Phytochrome functions in Arabidopsis development. J Expt Bot 61:11–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Heins RD, Wilkins HF (1979) The influence of node number, light source, and time of irradiation during darkness on lateral branching and cutting production in ‘bright golden Anne’ chrysanthemum. J Amer Soc Hort Sci 104:265–270Google Scholar
  10. Heo JW, Lee CW, Chakrabarty D, Paek KY (2002) Growth responses of marigold and salvia bedding plants as affected by monochromic or mixture radiation provided by a light emitting diode (LED). Plant Growth Regul 38:225–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hersch M, Lorrain S, Wit M, Trevisan M, Ljung K, Bergmann S (2014) Light intensity modulates the regulatory network of the shade avoidance responses in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111:6515–6520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Higuchi Y, Sumitomo K, Oda A, Shimizu H, Hisamatsu T (2012) Days light quality affects the night-break response in the short-day plant chrysanthemum, suggesting differential phytochrome-mediated regulation of flowering. J Plant Physiol 169:1789–1796CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Higuchi Y, Narumi T, Oda A, Nakano Y, Sumitomo K, Fukai S, Hisamatsu T (2013) The gated induction system of a systemic floral inhibitor, antiflorigen, determines obligate short-day flowering in chrysanthemums. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:17137–17142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Huq E, Al-Sady B, Hudson M, Kim C, Apel K, Quail PH (2004) Phytochrome-interacting factor 1 is a critical bHLH regulator of chlorophyll biosynthesis. Sci Signaling 305:1937–1941Google Scholar
  15. Jeong SW, Park S, Jin SJS, Seo O, Kim GS, Kim YH, Bae H, Lee G, Kim ST, Lee WS, Shin SC (2012) Influences of four different light-emitting diode lights on flowering and polyphenol variations in the leaves of chrysanthemum. J Agric Food Chem 60:9793–9800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kadman-Zahavi AVISHAG, Peiper D (1987) Effects of moonlight on flower induction in Pharbitis nil, using a single dark period. Ann Bot 60:621–623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kim SJ, Hahn EJ, Heo JW, Paek KY (2004) Effects of LEDs on net photosynthetic rate, growth and leaf stomata of chrysanthemum plantlets in vitro. Sci Hort 101:143–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kim YJ, Lee HJ, Kim KS (2011) Night interruption promotes vegetative growth and flowering of Cymbidium. Sci Hort 130:887–893CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Li Q, Kubota C (2009) Effects of supplemental light quality on growth and phytochemicals of baby leaf lettuce. Environ Expt Bot 67:59–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lin CT (2000) Plant blue-light receptors. Trends Plant Sci 5:337–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Matsuda R, Ohashi-Kaneko K, Fujiwara K, Kurata K (2007) Analysis of the relationship between blue-light photon flux density and the photosynthetic properties of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves with regard to the acclimation of photosynthesis to growth irradiance. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 53:459–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Monte E, Tepperman JM, Al-Sady B, Kaczorowski KA, Alonso JM, Ecker JR, Li X, Zhang Y, Quail PH (2004) The phytochrome-interacting transcription factor, PIF3, acts early, selectively, and positively in light-induced chloroplast development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:16091–16098CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Muneer S, Kim EJ, Park JS, Lee JH (2014) Influence of green, red and blue light emitting diodes on multi protein complex proteins and photosynthetic activity under different light intensities in lettuce leaves (Lactuca sativa L.). Intl J Mol Sci 15:4657–4670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Oh W, Rhie YH, Park JH, Runkle ES, Kim KS (2008) Flowering of cyclamen is accelerated by an increase in temperature, photoperiod and daily light integral. J Hort Sci Biotechnol 83:559–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Oyaert E, Volckaert E, Debergh PC (1999) Growth of chrysanthemum under coloured plastic films with different light qualities and quantities. Sci Hort 79:195–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Park YJ, Kim YJ, Kim KS (2013) Vegetative growth and flowering of Dianthus, Zinnia, and Pelargonium as affected by night interruption at different timings. Hort Environ Biotechnol 54:236–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Park YG, Muneer S, Jeong BR (2015) Morphogenesis, flowering, and gene expression of Dendranthema grandiflorum in response to shift in light quality of night interruption. Intl J Mol Sci 16:16497–16513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Park YG, Muneer S, Soundararajan P, Manivnnan A, Jeong BR (2016) Light quality during night interruption affects morphogenesis and flowering in Petunia hybrida, a qualitative long-day plant. Hort Environ Biotechnol 57:371–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Park YG, Muneer S, Soundararajan P, Manivnnan A, Jeong B (2017) Light quality during night interruption affects morphogenesis and flowering in geranium. Hort Environ Biotechnol 58:212–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Possart A, Fleck C, Hiltbrunner A (2014) Shedding (far-red) light on phytochrome mechanisms and responses in land plants. Plant Sci 217-218:34–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Purohit SS, Ranjan R (2002) Flowering. In: Purohit SS, Ranjan R (eds) Phytochrome and flowering. Agrobios, Jodhpur, pp 52–61Google Scholar
  32. Quail PH, Boylan MT, Parks BM, Short TW, Xu Y, Wagner D (1995) Phytochromes: Photosensory perception and signal transduction. Science 268:675–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Reddy SK, Finlayson SA (2014) Phytochrome B promotes branching in Arabidopsis by suppressing auxin signaling. Plant Physiol 164:1542–1550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Saebo A, Krekling T, Appelgren M (1995) Light quality affects photosynthesis and leaf anatomy of birch plantlets in vitro. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 41:177–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Smith H (2000) Phytochromes and light signal perception by plants an emerging synthesis. Nature 407:585–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Smorenburg K, Bazalgette CLG, Berger M, Buschmann C, Court A, Bello UD, Langsdorf G, Lichtenthaler HK, Sioris C, Stoll MP, Visser H (2002) Remote sensing of solar induced fluorescence of vegetation. Proc SPIE 4542:178–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Stack PA, Drummond FA, Stack LB (1998) Chrysanthemum flowering in a blue light-supplemented long day maintained for biocontrol of thrips. Hortscience 33:710–715Google Scholar
  38. Sun J, Nishio JN, Vogelmann TC (1998) Green light drives CO2 fixation deep within leaves. Plant Cell Physiol 39:1020–1026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tanaka M, Takamura T, Watanabe H, Endo M, Yanagi T, Okamoto K (1998) In vitro growth of Cymbidium plantlets cultured under superbright red and blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs). J Hort Sci Biotech 73:39–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Tepperman JM, Hudson ME, Khanna R, Zhu T, Chang SH, Wang X, Quail PH (2004) Expression profiling of phyB mutant demonstrates substantial contribution of other phytochromes to red-light-regulated gene expression during seedling de-etiolation. Plant J 38:725–739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Tong Z, Wang T, Xu Y (1990) Evidence for involvement of phytochrome regulation in male sterility of a mutant of Oryza sativa L. Photochem Photobiol 52:161–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Vandenbussche F, Pierik R, Millenaar FF, Voesenek LA, Van Der Straeten D (2005) Reaching out of the shade. Curr Opin Plant Biol 8:462–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Vince-Prue D, Canham AE (1983) Horticultural significance of photomorphogenesis. p. 518-544. In: Shropshire W, Mohr H (eds) Encyclopedia of plant physiology (NS). Springer-Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  44. Yamada AT, Tanigawa T, Suyama T, Matsuno T, Kunitake T (2009) Red:far-red light ratio and far-red light integral promote or retard growth and flowering in Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.) Shinn. Sci Hort 120:101–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Yue D, Gosselin A, Desjardins Y (1993) Effects of forced ventilation at different relative humidities on growth, photosynthesis and transpiration of geranium plantlets in vitro. Can J Plant Sci 73:249–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yoo Gyeong Park
    • 1
  • Byoung Ryong Jeong
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Agriculture and Life ScienceGyeongsang National UniversityJinjuRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Division of Applied Life Science (BK21 Plus Program), Graduate SchoolGyeongsang National UniversityJinjuRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Research Institute of Life ScienceGyeongsang National UniversityJinjuRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations