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Dissipation and Impact of Herbicides on Soil Properties in Tamil Nadu

  • P. Janaki
  • S. Meena
  • R. Shanmugasundaram
  • C. Chinnusamy
Chapter
Part of the Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World book series (ECSW, volume 12)

Abstract

Herbicides use has increased to 25% of total pesticides during the last 10 years in India. Currently, the herbicide consumption in Tamil Nadu contributes about 7% of the total market. Among total registered herbicides in India, 12 are prominently used in rice, maize, sugarcane, cotton, pulses, oilseeds, and non-cropped areas. Though herbicides are playing an important role for controlling weeds and increasing food production, their potential harm to human beings, soil health and environment is a cause of concern. We reviewed herbicide residue research in the state of Tamil Nadu and reported in this chapter. In long-term studies involving rice, butachlor, pretilachlor and 2,4-D dissipated by first order kinetics with half-life of 6.0–11.8, 9.9–10.8 and 6.5–11.4 days, respectively. Terminal residues were below detection limit (BDL) or maximum residue limit (MRL) in rice grain. Traizines, dinitroanilines, acetoanilide, imidazolinones, diethyl-ether, pyrimidinyloxybenzoic acid, phenoxy and propionic acid herbicides persisted in soil from 60 to 150 days. Soil half-lives of atrazine, pendimethalin, and metolachlor ranged from 31.8 to 44.9, 12.2 to 30.1, 16.0 to 38.5 days, respectively with persistence order: atrazine > pendimethalin > metolachlor > metribuzin > imazethapyr > alachlor > butachlor > pretilachlor > oxyfluorfen > imazethapyr. The herbicide residues in 99.2% crop samples were below MRL. The residues affected soil microbial populations until 30 days, and the chemical properties like organic C, texture, pH and cation exchange capacity had significant influence on herbicides persistence, mobility and sorption. About 80% residues dissipated under aquatic system on 30th day with <15% fish mortality. It was concluded that contamination of soil, crops and water by herbicides was at very low levels in Tamil Nadu.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Janaki
    • 1
  • S. Meena
    • 1
  • R. Shanmugasundaram
    • 1
  • C. Chinnusamy
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AgronomyTamil Nadu Agricultural UniversityCoimbatoreIndia

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