Advertisement

Persistence of Herbicides in Rice–Rice System in Kerala

  • K. M. Durga Devi
  • C. T. Abraham
  • S. Krishnan
  • C. N. Upasana
Chapter
Part of the Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World book series (ECSW, volume 12)

Abstract

Tropical and humid conditions of Kerala provide a favorable environment for emergence of a wide range of plant species. Reduction in crop yield due to weeds has been estimated to be 30–80% under varying intensities. Due to the severity of weed problem, hike in labour wages and acute labour scarcity during the peak period of demand, chemical weed control has become indispensable in rice cultivation. The increasing use of herbicides in rice and rice–based cropping systems is of great concern because these chemicals may act as pollutants which can cause soil-plant-animal health hazards, deterioration of soil quality and other residue related problems. Therefore, recommendations on weed control can be evolved only if the residue studies confirm that these chemicals are dissipated from the environment soon after their mission is accomplished. A long-term herbicide trial in rice- rice system showed that continuous application of butachlor/pretilachlor in rice for 13 years from 2001 to 2014 in a lateritic soil did not result in build-up of residues in soil, grain and straw. Farmyard manure application significantly improved the bioefficacy of herbicides. Increasing organic matter content increased the rate of adsorption of herbicides as well as degradation by soil micro flora. Research results indicated that indiscriminate use of 2,4-D in lowland paddy fields in Kuttanad region (lying below the sea level) resulted in the persistence of residues in water bodies. Long-term application of herbicides had no significant negative effect on the basic soil properties, viz. pH, organic C and available nutrients.

References

  1. Albanis TA (1992) Herbicide losses in runoff from the agricultural area of Thessatoniki in Thermaikos Gulf, N. Greece. Sci Tot Environ 114:59–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson WP (1983) Weed science. Principles and practices, 2nd edn. West Publishing Co, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. Anonymous (2014) Report on cost of cultivation of important crops in Kerala 2013–2014. Department of economics and statistics, Government of Kerala, pp 14–29Google Scholar
  4. Baskaran S, Bolan NS, Rahman A, Tillman RW (1996) Effects of exogenous carbon on the sorption and movement of atrazine and 2,4-D by soils. Aust J Soil Res 34:609–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beestman GB, Deeming JM (1974) Dissipation of acetanilide herbicides from soils. Agron J 66:308–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chakraborty SK, Bhattacharya A (1991) Degradation of butachlor by two soil fungi. Chemosphere 23(1):99–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen YL, Chen JS (1979) Degradation and dissipation of herbicide butachlor in paddy fields. J Pestic Sci 4:431–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen YL, Wu TC (1978) Degradation of herbicide butachlor by soil microbes. J Pestic Sci 3:411–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cohen SZ, Creeger SM, Cassel RF, Enfield CG (1984) In: Krueger RF, Seiber JN (eds) Treatment and disposal of pesticide wastes, ACS Symp Ser 259. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 294–325Google Scholar
  10. Covalier TC, Lavy TL, Mattice JD (1991) Persistence of selected herbicides in ground water samples. Ground Wtr 29:225–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cox C (1999) 2,4-D: exposure. J Pestic Reform 19:14–19Google Scholar
  12. Deka SK, Gogoi AK (1993) Studies on the persistence of butachlor in soil and residues in straw and grain of rice (Oryza sativa L.), In: Proceedings of international symposium on integrated weed management for sustainable agriculture, vol II. 18–20 November. Hisar, pp 96–98Google Scholar
  13. Devi KMD (2002) Assessment of 2,4-D residues in the major rice soils of Kerala. Ph.D. thesis, Kerala Agricultural University, Trichur, 195 pGoogle Scholar
  14. Devi KMD, Abraham CT (2000) Residual effect of pre-emergence herbicides under different methods of application. In: Abstract of national seminar on sustainability of weed control options for the new millennium, 20–21 December, 2000. Annamalai Nagar, p 74Google Scholar
  15. Devi MP, Reddy CN, Reddy NV, Rao BN (1997) Degradation of butachlor in transplanted rice and residues in soil, straw and grain of rice (Oryza sativa L.). J Res ANGRAU 25:13–15Google Scholar
  16. Devi KMD, Kannan MM, Abraham CT, Beena S (2007) Persistence of herbicides and its impact on soil microflora in rice- rice system. J Crop Weed 3(1):3–9Google Scholar
  17. Edwards CA (1973) Pesticides residues in soil and water. In: Edwards CA (ed) Environmental pollution by pesticides. Plenum Press, London, pp 409–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fajardo FF, Takagi K, Ishizaka M, Usui K (2000) Pattern and rate of dissipation of pretilachlor and mefenacet in plow layer and paddy water under low land field conditions: a three year study. J Pestic Sci 25(2):94–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. FCN (1982) The pesticide chemical news guide, vol 202. Food Chemical News, p 544Google Scholar
  20. GOK [Government of Kerala] (2016) An analytical study on agriculture in Kerala, monitoring and evaluation division. Directorate of Agriculture, Thiruvanathapuram, 339 pGoogle Scholar
  21. Hamaker JW, Thompson JM (1972) Adsorption. In: Goring JW, Hamaker JW (eds) Organic chemical in the soil environment, vol 1. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 727–734Google Scholar
  22. Han SO, New PB (1994) Effect of water availability on degradation of 2, 4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2, 4-D) by soil micro organisms. Soil Biol Biochem 26:1689–1697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Harris CR (1972) Factors influencing the effectiveness of soil insecticides. A Rev Ent 17:177–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Harris RC, Skinner AC (1992) Controlling diffuse pollution of groundwater from agriculture and industry. J Inst Water Environ Manag 6:569–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Harris CI, Warren GF (1964) Adsorption and desorption of herbicides by soil. Weeds 12:120–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hartley GS (1964) The physiology and biochemistry of herbicides. In: Audus LJ (ed) Herbicides. Academic, New York, pp 111–161Google Scholar
  27. Hasna K (2011) Influence of organic matter and soil moisture on the adsorption of chloroacetanilide herbicides, viz., butachlor and pretilachlor, in laterite soil. M.Sc. thesis, Kerala Agricultural University, Kerala, India, 91pGoogle Scholar
  28. Hermosin MC, Cornejo J (1991) Soil adsorption of 2,4-D as affected by the clay mineralogy. Toxicol Environ Chem 31–32:69–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jayakumar R, Sreeramulu VS (1993) Degradation and persistence of herbicides in transplanted rice. Indian J Weed Sci 2:101–105Google Scholar
  30. Johnkutty S, Venugopal VK (1993) Kole lands of Kerala. Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur, p 68Google Scholar
  31. Karickhoff SW, Brown OS, Scott TA (1979) Sorption of hydrophobic pollutants on natural sediments and soils. Water Res 13:241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. KAU (1984) NARP status report of southern region. Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur, p 113Google Scholar
  33. KAU (1989) NARP status report of central zone. Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur, p 143Google Scholar
  34. KAU (2004) Final report of ICAR Adhoc project. Persistence of herbicides in water bodies and its impact on aquatic life. Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur, p 4 6Google Scholar
  35. KAU [Kerala Agricultural University] (1999) Final report of ICAR Adhoc project on evaluation of Kuttanad ecosystem for possible contamination by pesticides, herbicides and toxic heavy metals. Kerala Agricultural University, Regional Agricultural Research Station, Kumarakom 39 pGoogle Scholar
  36. KAU [Kerala Agricultural University] (2011) Package of practices recommendations: crops, Crops. 8/, 14th edn. Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur, p 337Google Scholar
  37. KAU [Kerala Agricultural University] (2014) Report for the review team. All India coordinated research programme on weed control. Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur 40 pGoogle Scholar
  38. KAU [Kerala Agricultural University] (2015) Annual report. All India coordinated research programme on weed control. Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur 41 pGoogle Scholar
  39. Kulshrestha G, Yaduraju NT, Mani VS (1981) Dissipation of butachlor and propanil herbicides in rice crop. In: Proceedings of eighth Asian pacific weed science society conference, Bangalore, India, pp 469–474Google Scholar
  40. Kuwatsuka S, Miwa N (1989) Characteristics of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) degrading microorganisms isolated from different soils. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 37(4):578–581Google Scholar
  41. Liu H, Amy G (1993) Modeling partitioning and transport interactions between natural organic matter and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in groundwater. Environ Sci Technol 27:1553–1562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ma SY, Kim JS, Han KS (1999) Effect of pre-treatments of plant growth regulator, fungicide and herbicide on glutathione conjugation of pretilachlor in rice seedlings. Korean J Weed Sci 19(4):332–339Google Scholar
  43. Moon YH, Kim YS (2000) Dissipation in surface water and adsorption in soil of butachlor, oxadiazon, pretilachlor and thiobencarb. Korean Weed Sci 20:32–38Google Scholar
  44. Pierce RH Jr, Olney CE, Felbeck GT Jr (1971) Pesticide adsorption in soils and sediments. Environ Lett 1(2):157–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Pionke HB, Chesters G (1973) Pesticide – sediment – water interactions. J Environ Qual 2:29–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Prakash NB, Devi SL (2000) Persistence of butachlor in soils under different moisture regimes. J Indian Soc Soil Sci 48(2):249–256Google Scholar
  47. Prakash NB, Suseeladevi L, Siddaramappa R (2000) Effect of organic amendments on persistence of butachlor and pendimethalin in soil of Karnataka. J Agril Sci 13:575–580Google Scholar
  48. Reddy DVS, Thamban C, Sairam CV (2001) Participatory research in paddy cultivation Kasaragod district of Kerala: a case study. J Trop Agric 39:42–46Google Scholar
  49. RSC [Royal Society of Chemistry] (1987) In: Hartley D (ed) Agro chemical hand book, 2nd edn. The Royal Society of Chemistry, Notingham, p 950Google Scholar
  50. Scheunert I, Schroll R, Dorfler U (1993) Persistence of herbicides in Agricultural soils. In: Proceedings of international symposium on integrated weed management for sustainable agriculture, vol II. pp 96–98. 18–20 November, HisarGoogle Scholar
  51. Smith AE (1989) Degradation, fate and persistence of phenoxyalkanoic acid herbicides in soil. Rev Weed Sci 4:1–24Google Scholar
  52. Sokolov MS, Knyr LL, Strekozov EP, Agarkor VD, Chubenko AP, Kryzhko BA (1974) The behaviour of herbicides in a rice irrigation system. Agrokhimiya 11(3):95–106Google Scholar
  53. Sondhia S (2014a) Soil adsorption studies of a rice herbicide, cyhalofop-butyl, in two texturally different soils of India. Environ Monit Assess 186:5969–5976.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-014-3832-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Sondhia S (2014b) Herbicides residues in soil, water, plants and non-targeted organisms and human health implications: an Indian perspective. Indian J Weed Sci 46(1):66–85Google Scholar
  55. Sondhia S, Singh VP, Yaduraju NT (2005) Dissipation of butachlor in sandy clay loam soil and detection of its residues in rice grains and straw. In: Proceeding of biennial conference of Indian society of weed science, Ludhiana, India, 6–8 April 2005, pp 298–299Google Scholar
  56. Sondhia S, Dubey RP (2006) Terminal residues of butachlor and pendimethalin in onion. Pestic Res J 18:185–186Google Scholar
  57. Stearman GK, Lewis RJ, Tortorelli LJ, Taylor DD (1989) Herbicides reactivity of soil organic matter fractions in no tilled and tilled cotton. Soil Sci Soc Am J 53:1690–1694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Tejada AW, Varca LM, Columpang SMF et al (1995) Assessment of environmental impact of pesticides in Paddy rice production. In: Roger PA (ed) Impact of pesticides on farmer health and rice environment. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 149–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. USEPA (1988) Pesticides and toxic substances. Guidance for reregistration of pesticide products containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) as the active ingredient, September 1988, Washington DC, p 18Google Scholar
  60. Walker A, Moon YH, Welch SJ (1992) Influence of temperature, soil moisture and soil characteristics on the persistence of alachlor. Pestic Sci 35(2):109–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Willems HPL, Lewis KJ, Dyson JS, Lewis FJ (1996) Mineralization of 2,4-D and atrazine in the unsaturated zone of a sandy loam soil. Soil Biol Biochem 28:989–996CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Yen JH, Sheu WS, Wang YS (2003) Dissipation of the herbicide oxyfluorfen in subtropical soils and its potential to contaminate groundwater. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 54(2):151–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. M. Durga Devi
    • 1
  • C. T. Abraham
    • 1
  • S. Krishnan
    • 1
  • C. N. Upasana
    • 1
  1. 1.College of HorticultureKerala Agricultural UniversityThrissurIndia

Personalised recommendations