Immunolocalization of Enamel Matrix Protein-Like Proteins in the Tooth Enameloid of Actinopterygian Bony Fish
Tooth enameloid in bony fish is a well-mineralized tissue resembling enamel in mammals. It was assumed that the dental epithelial cells are deeply involved in the formation of enameloid. However, unlike enamel matrix which fully consists of several ectodermal enamel matrix proteins (EMPs), whether enameloid matrix contains ectodermal EMPs has been debated for a long time. In the present study, transmission electron microscopy-based immunohistochemical examinations, using the protein A-gold method with antibodies and antiserum against mammalian amelogenin, were performed in order to search for EMP-like proteins in the cap enameloid of basic actinopterygians, Polypterus and gar. Positive immunoreactivity was detected in the cap enameloid matrix just before the appearance of many crystallites along collagen fibrils, indicating that the cap enameloid contains EMP-like proteins. Immunolabelling was usually found along the collagen fibrils but was not seen on the electron-dense fibrous structures. Therefore, it is conceivable that the ectodermal EMP-like proteins in cap enameloid are involved in crystallite formation along collagen fibrils.
KeywordsBony fish Enameloid Enamel matrix protein Immunohistochemistry Tooth Transmission electron microscopy
Cap enameloid is a well-mineralized tissue that occupies the tooth tip of actinopterygians (ray-finned bony fish) and corresponds to mammalian tooth enamel. Enameloid is an attractive tissue for elucidating biomineralization in fish and evolution of dental hard tissues in early vertebrates because its process of formation is different from that of mammalian enamel. Unlike amelogenesis in mammals, enameloid is formed by both odontoblasts and dental epithelial cells. Most of the organic matrix, including abundant collagen fibrils, is provided by odontoblasts during the matrix formation stage of enameloid, and many odontoblast processes are present in the matrix. Therefore, enameloid is homologous to the outermost layer of dentin. Dental epithelial cells are mainly engaged in the degeneration and removal of organic matrix and in the formation of large crystals during the maturation stage of enameloid formation (Sasagawa and Ishiyama 2005a, b).
The pattern of mineralization in enameloid is accordingly different from that in enamel. The mineralization process in cap enameloid is summarized as follows. During the matrix formation stage, many matrix vesicles (MVs) and electron-dense fibrous structures (EDFSs) that are probably derived from MVs (Sasagawa and Ishiyama 2003) are observed in the collagen-rich enameloid matrix. MVs are often the first sites at which crystallites appear. Then, many slender crystallites are deposited along the collagen fibrils in the enameloid, in a manner similar to the dentin and bone, during the mineralization stage. During the next maturation stage, the dental epithelial cells remove the degenerated organic matrix, including collagen fibrils, from enameloid and supply inorganic ions to boost crystal growth, like the maturation stage of amelogenesis in mammals. In matured enameloid, bundles are formed from thick elongated crystals that become twisted with each other, which are thought to keep the structure of degenerated collagen fibrils. However, the presence of ectodermal EMPs in enameloid is an unsolved question, in spite of expected active participation of the inner dental epithelial (IDE) cells.
18.2 Materials and Methods
The actinopterygian fish Polypterus, Polypterus senegalus (three specimens, total length 9.5–19 cm), and gars, Lepisosteus oculatus (three specimens, total length 16–55 cm), were used in the present study. Local university animal care committees approved the euthanasia and all other animal procedures.
We subjected the tooth germs during the stages of enameloid formation to TEM observations and TEM-based immunohistochemical examinations using antibodies against mammalian amelogenins (AMEL). An affinity-purified, polyclonal anti-27 kDa bovine AMEL antibody (BAA) (Shimokawa et al. 1984) and anti-25 kDa porcine AMEL antiserum (PAA) (Uchida et al. 1989, 1991) were used in the present study. In previous studies, positive immunoreactivity with the anti-BAA and anti-PAA has been detected in the collar enamel of teeth and ganoine of ganoid scales in gar and the collar enamel of teeth in Polypterus, respectively (Sasagawa et al. 2012, 2014, 2016). For the immunohistochemical analyses, jaws containing tooth germs were placed in 4% paraformaldehyde-0.2% glutaraldehyde fixative (0.05 M 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1- piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) buffer, pH 7.4) for 3 h at 4 °C. The specimens were then dehydrated with N, N-dimethylformamide and embedded in LR-White resin (LR-W, London Resin, Reading, UK) at −20 °C. The protein A-gold (PAG) method was employed for immunohistochemical analyses. For TEM immunohistochemistry, ultrathin sections of the tooth germs obtained from LR-W resin blocks were mounted on nickel grids. The specimens were floated on a drop of 1% NGS for 15 min and then incubated overnight on a drop of the relevant antibody or antiserum diluted 1:200–1:400 with BSA-PBS. The sections were then washed and transferred onto a drop of PAG conjugate (5 nm gold, EMPAG5, BBI) diluted 1:10 with BSA-PBS for 30 min after being treated with 1% NGS for 10 min. These sections were stained with platinum blue (TI blue, Nissin EM, Tokyo, Japan) and lead citrate (TI-Pb) and often stained with phosphotungstic acid (PTA) in addition to TI-Pb (TI-Pb-PTA) and then examined in a TEM (JEM-1010, JEOL). Negative controls were performed by incubating sections in PBS lacking antibody or antiserum, or in normal rabbit serum (NRS) instead of antibody or antiserum. For TEM studies, ultrathin sections were mainly stained with lead citrate alone and examined using a TEM. Semi-thin sections that had been stained with 0.1% toluidine blue (TB) were also prepared for light microscopy. Details of the methods were described in previous reports (Sasagawa et al. 2012, 2014, 2016).
Formation of cap enameloid is divided into three stages, namely, matrix formation, mineralization and maturation, according to morphological studies. In the present study, we mainly examined the stage of mineralization (Fig. 18.1b).
18.3.1 Initial Mineralization of Enameloid in Polypterus
In the TEM observation, abundant collagen fibrils were visible in the enameloid matrix during the early stage of enameloid mineralization. Many EDFSs and a few MVs were also observed in the enameloid matrix. There were no crystallites in the EDFSs, MVs and collagen fibrils, during the early stage (Fig. 18.1c). During the late stage of mineralization, fine, slender crystallites were found in both the EDFSs and collagen fibrils (Fig. 18.1d). In area where mineralization process is more advanced, many marked slender crystallites accumulated along the collagen fibrils (Fig. 18.1e) and formed bundles that aligned in the direction of the collagen fibrils (Fig. 18.1f). Afterwards, the crystallites increased in size, associated with the degeneration and removal of collagen fibrils.
18.3.2 Immunohistochemical Localization of EMP-Like Proteins in Enameloid Matrix
PAG particles were mainly observed on collagen fibrils in the enameloid. It is possible that the EMP-like proteins are involved in mineralization along the collagen fibrils in enameloid, because the initial crystallites appeared in collagen fibrils in the subsequent substage. On the other hand, EDFSs exhibited no immunolabelling. It is likely that EDFSs are not the structure that contains EMP-like proteins. In a previous morphological study using TEM (Sasagawa and Ishiyama 2003), it was assumed that the EDFSs were the site of initial mineralization in cap enameloid. However, in the present TEM study, fine crystallites seemed to appear at both the EDFSs and collagen fibrils simultaneously. Because this phenomenon was observed in the enameloid matrix of gar (Sasagawa et al. in prep), this initial mineralization process in the enameloid seems to be very similar in Polypterus and gar. Even if the EDFSs are one of the sites of initial mineralization, the EDFSs might not be related to crystallite formation along the collagen fibrils in enameloid.
In mammals, AMEL occupies approximately 90% of EMPs. It is assumed that AMEL plays an important part in producing the structure of the enamel layer and to encourage crystal growth during amelogenesis. In Polypterus and gar, EMP-like proteins have been detected in the collar enamel and ganoine by several immunohistochemical studies using anti-mammalian AMEL antibodies (Ishiyama et al. 1999; Sasagawa et al. 2012, 2014, 2016; Zylberberg et al. 1997). According to recent genetic analyses, however, gars do not have an AMEL gene, but ameloblastin, enamelin, and many other secretory calcium-binding phosphoprotein (SCPP) genes are present and are expressed in both teeth and scales (Qu et al. 2015; Braasch et al. 2016). It is likely that the EMP-like proteins in actinopterygian fish have epitopes similar to mammalian AMEL, and the anti-mammalian AMEL antibodies may have cross-reacted with these proteins. It is probable that the EMP-like proteins detected in enameloid matrix are SCPPs (Kawasaki et al. 2017).
The authors wish to thank Dr. T. Uchida of Hiroshima University and Dr. H. Shimokawa of Tokyo Medical and Dental University for donations of the antibodies against porcine AMEL (TU) and the antibody against bovine AMEL (HS). This study was supported in part by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research No. 16591844 and 21592329 from the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports, and Culture, Japan, and by a Research Promotion Grant (NDUF-13-10, NDUF-14-12, NDU Grants N-15015) from The Nippon Dental University.
Conflict of Interest
The author declares no conflicts of interest associated with this manuscript.
- Braasch I, Gehrke AR, Smith JJ, Kawasaki K, Manousaki T, Pasquier J, Amores A, Desvignes T, Batzel P, Catchen J, Berlin AM, Campbell MS, Barrell D, Martin KJ, Mulley JF, Ravi V, Lee AP, Nakamura T, Chalopin D, Fan S, Wcisel D, Canestro C, Sydes J, Beaudry FEG, Sun Y, Hertel J, Beam MJ, Fasold M, Ishiyama M, Johnson J, Kehr S, Lara M, Letaw JH, Litman GW, Litman RT, Mikami M, Ota T, Saha NR, Williams L, Stadler PF, Wang H, Taylor JS, Fontenot Q, Ferrara A, Searle SMJ, Aken B, Yandel M, Schneider I, Yoder JA, Volff J-N, Meyer A, Amemiya CT, Venkatesh B, Holland PWH, Guiguen Y, Bobe J, Shubin NH, Palma FD, Alfoldi J, Lindblad-Toh K, Postlethwait JH (2016) The spotted gar genome illuminates vertebrate evolution and facilitates human-teleost comparisons. Nat Genet 48:427–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sasagawa I, Ishiyama M (2003) Fine structural observations of the initial mineralization during enameloid formation in gar-pikes, Lepisosteus oculatus, and polypterus, Polypterus senegalus, bony fish. In: Kobayashi I, Ozawa H (eds) Biomineralization(BIOM2001); formation, diversity, evolution and application. Proceedings of the 8th international symposium on biomineralizations. Tokai University Press, Kanagawa, pp 381–385Google Scholar
- Sasagawa I, Ishiyama M, Yokosuka H, Mikami M, Oka S, Shimokawa H, Uchida T (in prep) Immunolocalization of enamel matrix protein-like proteins in the tooth enameloid of spotted gar, Lepisosteus oculatus, an actinopterygian bony fishGoogle Scholar
- Shimokawa H, Wassmer P, Sobel ME, Termine JD (1984) Characterization of cell-free translation products of mRNA from bovine ameloblasts by monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. In: Fearnhead RW, Suga S (eds) Tooth enamel IV. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 161–166Google Scholar
- Uchida T, Tanabe T, Fukae M, Shimizu M, Yamada M, Miake K, Kobayashi S (1991) Immunochemical and immunohistochemical studies, using antisera against porcine 25 kDa amelogenin, 89 kDa enamelin and the 13-17 kDa nonamelogenins, on immature enamel of the pig and rat. Histochemistry 96:129–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Open Access This chapter is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license and indicate if changes were made.
The images or other third party material in this chapter are included in the chapter's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the chapter's Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.