Fetal Genitourinary Tract Sonography

  • S. Boopathy Vijayaraghavan


Dilatation of UT is one of the common fetal anomalies seen prenatally. The UT is closely related to amniotic fluid volume since the major source of amniotic fluid in second trimester is fetal urine. UT anomaly is associated with many syndromes and chromosomal anomalies. Normal sonographic appearance of structures of the UT and its anomalies are described.

Supplementary material

Video 3.1

Sonographic fetal micturition in a normal male fetus: Sagittal scan of fetal pelvis and perineum of a male fetus showing the urinary bladder, posterior urethra and penile urethra during fetal micturition with stream from tip of penis (MP4 374 kb)

Video 3.2

Sonographic fetal micturition in a normal female fetus: Sagittal scan of fetal pelvis and perineum of a female fetus with Colour Doppler Study shows the urinary bladder and urethra during fetal micturition with stream from urethral meatus seen by Color (MP4 259 kb)

Video 3.3

Ureteric peristalsis: Coronal scan of fetal abdomen showing dilated and tortuous ureter with hyperperistalsis (MP4 3528 kb)

Video 3.4

Ectopic ureteric opening: Oblique scan of fetal pelvis and perineum showing the peristalsis of dilated lower ureter being continued as distension of urethra, confirming ectopic ureteric opening into urethra (MP4 231 kb)

Video 3.5

Posterior urethral valves: Sonographic fetal micturition shows nondilated posterior urethra at rest and dilatation of posterior urethra with fetal micturition (MP4 542 kb)

Video 3.6

Anterior urethral valves: Sonographic fetal micturition shows dilatation of urethra up to mid shaft of penis during fetal micturition (MP4 1196 kb)

Video 3.7

Megacystis Megaureter complex: Sonographic fetal micturition in a fetus with megacystis and bilateral dilated ureters shows normal urethra confirming bilateral vesicoureteric reflux (MP4 1889 kb)

Suggested Reading

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Boopathy Vijayaraghavan
    • 1
  1. 1.SONOSCAN-Ultrasonic Scan CentreCoimbatoreIndia

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