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Sonography of Fetal Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT)

  • S. Boopathy Vijayaraghavan
Chapter

Abstract

The sonographic appearance of the structures of GIT vary during the different periods of gestation and during the scan because of peristalsis. The common anomaly seen on prenatal scan is atresia. The approach to sonographic diagnosis of the various anomalies of GIT are discussed here.

Supplementary material

Video 2.1

Longitudinal section of fetal chest showing the peristalsis of normal oesophagus (MP4 1292 kb)

Video 2.2

Technique of seeing pouch sign: Coronal scan of neck is obtained and the probe is rocked between spine and trachea (MP4 1252 kb)

Video 2.3

Pouch sign: Coronal scan of fetal neck showing the filling and collapsing of the blind oesophageal pouch (MP4 12755 kb)

Video 2.4

Coronal gray scale and Colour Doppler Study of fetal neck showing the fluid filled trachea which fills up with color during fetal breathing (MP4 2304 kb)

Video 2.5

Snow flake sign: Scan of an amniotic fluid pocket shows the movement of debris in it (MP4 10509 kb)

Video 2.6

Gastric hyperperistalsis in duodenal obstruction (MP4 5123 kb)

Video 2.7

Showing peristalsis in the cystic duplication of small bowel (MP4 2803 kb)

Video 2.8

Tubular duplication of small bowel showing peristalsis (MP4 416 kb)

Video 2.9

Small bowel obstruction: Dilated small bowel loops filling the fetal abdomen with hyperperistalsis (MP4 1369 kb)

Video 2.10

Up and down movement of transducer showing the “Whirl Pool” sign of malrotation of midgut with volvulus in grayscale study (MP4 12781 kb)

Video 2.11

Up and down movement of transducer showing the “Whirl Pool” sign of malrotation of midgut with volvulus in Colour Doppler study (MP4 8638 kb)

Video 2.12

Congenital Chloride Diarrhea: Axial scan of fetal abdomen showing uniformly dilated bowels distending the fetal abdomen with intense peristalsis (MP4 1754 kb)

Video 2.13

Congenital Chloride Diarrhea: Sagittal scan of fetal perineum showing fetal diarrhea as a gush of fluid from fetal anus (MP4 749 kb)

Video 2.14

Coronal Scan of fetal abdomen with gradual decrease of gain showing echogenic bowel disappearing in a normal fetus (MP4 1796 kb)

Video 2.15

Coronal Scan of fetal abdomen with gradual decrease of gain showing echogenic bowel persisting equal to bone in a case of echogenic bowel (MP4 812 kb)

Video 2.16

Technique of seeing fetal anus in a female fetus (MP4 2619 kb)

Video 2.17

Technique of seeing fetal anus in a male fetus (MP4 580 kb)

Video 2.18

Showing the nonvisualised fetal anus (MP4 2127 kb)

Suggested Reading

  1. Escobar LF, Weaver DD, Bixler D, Hodes ME, Mitchell M. Urorectal septum malformation sequence. Report of six cases and embryological analysis. Am J Dis Child. 1987;141(9):1021–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Gupta A, Bischoff A, Pena A, Runck LA, Guasch G. The great divide: septation and malformation of the cloaca, and its implications for surgeons. Pediatr Surg Int. 2014;30(11):1089–95.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Vijayaraghavan SB. Antenatal diagnosis of esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula. J Ultrasound Med. 1996;15:417–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Vijayaraghavan SB. Antenatal diagnosis of congenital chloride diarrhoea. Ind J Med Ultrasound. 1998;3 and 4:17–8.Google Scholar
  5. Vijayaraghavan SB, Prema AS, et al. Sonographic depiction of the fetal anus and its utility in the diagnosis of anorectal malformations. J Ultrasound Med. 2011;30(1):37–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Boopathy Vijayaraghavan
    • 1
  1. 1.SONOSCAN-Ultrasonic Scan CentreCoimbatoreIndia

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