Advertisement

Lightweight Deflectometer for Compaction Quality Control

  • Chennarapu Hariprasad
  • Balunaini Umashankar
  • Thejesh Kumar Garala
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering book series (LNCE, volume 16)

Abstract

Quality assessment and control (QA/QC) of compacted pavement layers involve regular monitoring of density and moisture content during compaction. In situ density is traditionally determined using sand-cone test method. However, many recent studies have indicated that stiffness- or strength-based quality measurements are easy to determine and more reliable than the density-based quality measurements. In this study, lightweight deflectometer (LWD) is used as a quality control device to assess the quality of compacted pavement layers. As a part of this study, an extensive LWD field testing program is undertaken on the expressway along the Outer Ring Road (ORR) located in Hyderabad, India, to determine the modulus of deformation (ELWD) of base and surface pavement layers. ELWD of compacted base and surface layers was found to commonly range from 37.6 to 58.6 and 89.3 to 125.7 MPa, respectively. In addition, a case study on a low-volume road is presented to demonstrate the relationship between the ELWD and in situ density obtained from the sand-cone test. LWD is found to be simple to operate and provides quick test results on any pavement layer. Hence, the frequency of quality control tests can be increased leading to an improvement in the overall quality of compacted pavement layers.

Keywords

Pavements Quality control Stiffness LWD Modulus of deformation 

References

  1. Berney, E. S., & Kyzar, J. D. (2012). Evaluation of non-nuclear soil moisture and density devices for field quality control. Transportation Research Record 2310 (pp. 18–26). Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board.Google Scholar
  2. Fleming, P. R., Frost, M. W., & Lambert, J. P. (2007). Review of lightweight deflectometer for routine in situ assessment of pavement material stiffness. Transportation Research Record 2004 (pp. 80–87). Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board.Google Scholar
  3. Gosk, W. (2016). Stiffness estimation of the soil built-in road embankment on the basis of light falling weight deflectometer test. In The 3rd International Conference on Transportation Geotechnics (ICTG 2016) (Vol. 143, pp. 395–402). Procedia Engineering, Elsevier.Google Scholar
  4. McCook, D. K., & Shanklin, D. W. (2000). NRCS experience with field density test methods including the sand-cone, nuclear gauge, rubber balloon, drive-cylinder, and clod test. In D. W. Shanklin, K. R. Rademacher, & J. R. Talbot (Eds.), Constructing and controlling compaction of earth fills (pp. 72–92). West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Meehan, C. L., Tehrani, F. S., & Vahedifard, F. (2012). A comparison of density-based and modulus based in situ test measurements for compaction control. Geotechnical Testing Journal, 35(3), 387–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. MORTH (Ministry of Road, Transport and Highways). (2001). Specifications for road and bridge works (4th ed.). India: Indian Road Congress.Google Scholar
  7. Rahman, F., Hossain, M., Hunt, M. M., & Romanoschi, S. A. (2008). Soil stiffness evaluation for compaction control of cohesionless embankments. Geotechnical Testing Journal, 31(5), 1–13.Google Scholar
  8. Umashankar, B., Hariprasad, C., & Kumar, G. (2015). Compaction quality control of pavement layers using LWD. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering ASCE, 28(2), 1–9.Google Scholar
  9. Uz, V. E., Saltan, M., & Gökalp, I. (2015). Comparison of DCP, CBR, and RLT test results for granular pavement materials and subgrade with structural perspective. In International Symposium on Non-Destructive Testing in Civil Engineering (NDT-CE), Berlin, Germany.Google Scholar
  10. Vennapusa, P. K. R., & White, D. J. (2009). Comparison of light weight deflectometer measurements for pavement foundation materials. Geotechnical Testing Journal, 32(3), 239–251.Google Scholar
  11. Zorn Instruments. (2011). User manual for the light weight deflectometer (LWD). ZFG 3.0, Hansestadt Stendal, Germany.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chennarapu Hariprasad
    • 1
  • Balunaini Umashankar
    • 2
  • Thejesh Kumar Garala
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringVardhaman College of Engineering (Autonomous)HyderabadIndia
  2. 2.Department of Civil EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology HyderabadHyderabadIndia
  3. 3.Schofield Centre, Department of EngineeringUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK

Personalised recommendations