Monitoring of the Ground Subsidence in Macao Using the PSI Technique

  • Shaojing JiangEmail author
  • Fenghua Shi
  • Bo Hu
  • Weibo Wang
  • Qianguo Lin
Conference paper
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 848)


In this paper, we investigated the long-term reclamation-induced ground subsidence in Macao, a coastal city of southern China. Persistent Scatterers Interferometry (PSI) technique was applied to retrieve the deformation rate in Macao during the period from April 2003 to August 2010 with a total of 41 scenes of descending ASAR data sets. The PSI-retrieved results showed a relatively stable pattern in Macao Peninsula, Taipa Island and Coloane Island, with an average subsidence velocity of -3 mm/y. In contrast, relatively large subsidence rates were highlighted in Cotai area, a newly reclamation land in 1990s, in which an average subsidence velocity was about -10 mm/y. A consistent relationship between the PSI results and the leveling measurements indicated that this PSI technique is an effective tool to monitor the reclamation-induced ground subsidence with a high accuracy and adequate spatial details. Accordingly the valuable ground subsidence results generated by PSI can be used not only for early detection and remedial activities of potential settlement of buildings, but also for helping the local government to formulate regional sustainable development planning and decision-making in disaster prevention and mitigation.


Persistent Scatterers Interferometry (PSI) Macao Reclamation land Ground subsidence 


  1. 1.
    Jiang, L.M., Lin, H.: Integrated analysis of SAR interferometric and geological data for investigating long-term reclamation settlement of Chek Lap Kok Airport, Hong Kong. Eng. Geol. 110, 77–92 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kim, J.S., Kim, D.J., Kim, S.W., Won, J.S.: Monitoring of urban land surface subsidence using PSI. Geosci. J. 11, 59–73 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kim, J.: Monitoring of surface deformation in urban areas using PSI technique, M. Sc. thesis, Seoul National University, 109 p. (2007)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Liu, G., Ding, X.L., Chen, Y.Q., Li, Z.L.: Ground settlement of Chek Lap Kok Airport, Hong Kong, detected by satellite synthetic aperture radar interferometry. Chin. Sci. Bull. 46(21), 1778–1782 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Stuyfzand, P.J.: The impact of land reclamation on groundwater quality and future drinking water supply in the Netherlands. Water Sci. Technol. 31, 47–57 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fernandez, J., Romero, R., Carrasco, D., Tlampo, K.F., Rodriguez-velasco, G., Aparicio, A., Arana, V., Gonzalez-matesanz, F.J.: Detection of displacements on Tenerife Island, Canaries, using radar interferometry. Geophys. J. Int. 160, 33–45 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lu, Z., Fatland, R., Wyss, M., Li, S., Eichelberer, J., Dean, K., Freymueller, J.: Deformation of New Trident volcano measured by ERS-1 SAR interferometry, Katmai National Park. Alask. Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 695–698 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Flalko, Y., Sandwell, D., Simous, M., Rosen, P.: Three-dimensional deformation caused by the Bam, Iran, earthquake and the origin of shallow slip deficit. Nature 435, 295–299 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yen, J.Y., Chen, K.S., Chang, C.P., Boerner, W.M.: Evaluation of earthquake potential and surface deformation by differential interferometry. Remote Sens. Environ. 112, 782–795 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bawden, G.W., Thatcher, W., Stein, R.S., Hudnut, K.W., Peltzer, G.: Tectonic contraction across Los Angeles after removal of groundwater pumping effects. Nature 412, 812–815 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hoffmann, J.: The future of satellite remote sensing in hydrogeology. Hydrogeol. J. 13, 247–250 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Herrera, G., Tomas, R., Lopez-sanchez, J.M., Delgado, J., Mallorqui, J.J., Duque, S., Mulas, J.: Advanced DInSAR analysis on mining areas: La Union case study (Murcia, SE Spain). Eng. Geol. 90, 148–159 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jung, H.C., Kim, S.W., Jung, H.S., Min, K.D., Won, J.S.: Satellite observation of coal mining subsidence by persistent scatterer analysis. Eng. Geol. 92, 1–13 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jiang, L., Lin, H., Cheng, S.: Monitoring and assessing reclamation settlement of coastal areas with advanced InSAR techniques: Macao city (China) case study. Int. J. Remote Sens. 32, 3565–3588 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kim, S.W., Lee, C.W., Song, K.Y., Min, K.D., Won, J.S.: Application of L-band differential SAR interferometry to subsidence rate estimation in reclaimed coastal land. Int. J. Remote Sens. 26, 1363–1381 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Teatini, P., Strozzi, T., Tosi, L., Wegmuller, U., Werner, C., Carbognin, L.: Assessing short- and long-time displacements in the Venice coastland by synthetic aperture radar interferometric point target analysis. J. Geophys. Res. 112, 656–664 (2007)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zebker, H.A., Villasenor, J.: Decorrelation in interferometric radar echoes. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 30, 950–959 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ferretti, A., Prati, C., Rocca, F.: Permanent scatterers in SAR interferometry. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 39, 8–20 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ferretti, A., Prati, C., Rocca, F.: Nonlinear subsidence rate estimation using permanent scatterers in differential SAR interferometry. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 38, 2202–2212 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hu, B., Wang, H.: Monitoring ground subsidence with permanent scatterers interferometry. J. Geodesy Geodyn. 30, 14–21 (2010)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kampes, B., Hanssen, R.: Ambiguity resolution for permanent scatterer interferometry. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 2446–2453 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shaojing Jiang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Fenghua Shi
    • 2
  • Bo Hu
    • 3
  • Weibo Wang
    • 1
  • Qianguo Lin
    • 4
  1. 1.Research Institute of Yanchang Petroleum (GROUP) Co., LtdXi’anChina
  2. 2.Urban and Rural Construction InstituteHebei Agricultural UniversityBaodingChina
  3. 3.Department of Surveying and MappingGuangdong University of TechnologyGuangzhouChina
  4. 4.Carbon Capture and Storage (Beijing) Technology Co. LtdBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations