Citations and References with Citation and H-Index

  • Nisha V. Parmar
  • Divya Gupta


  • Referencing forms a critical part of the research and reflects the thoroughness of literature search.

  • Important referencing systems include note system (e.g. Vancouver system) and parenthetical system (e.g. Harvard system).

  • Many reference management software like EndNote, Zotero, Reference manager and Mendeley have been developed to help authors organize and change the order of references.

  • Indexing agencies are online database systems that compile information on journal titles and authors. Common indexing agencies are Medline/PubMed, SCOPUS, EMBASE, DOAJ, Hinari and Index Copernicus.

  • Quality of scientific output is measured by various scientific indices like impact factor, H index and citation index. These influence both the author impact and journal ranking.

  • This chapter discusses the principles of referencing, referencing systems, indexing and various indices of measuring the quality of research such as impact factor, H index and citation index. Elements of citation for journals, books, conference proceedings, scientific reports, dissertation and patent are discussed in detail under the Vancouver system.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nisha V. Parmar
    • 1
  • Divya Gupta
    • 2
  1. 1.Rashid Hospital, Dubai Health AuthorityDubaiUAE
  2. 2.Oliva Skin and Hair ClinicBengaluruIndia

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