Preparing Figures and Tables

  • Sudhir Kumar Jain
  • Rohit Kaushik


  • The basic fundamental of research methodology is to identify the type of data and its representation in a systematic way.

  • Data may be represented using figures, tables.

  • It helps in making the data visually appealing and provides information about a large sample in a concise and understandable way.

  • Variables may be qualitative or quantitative. Qualitative variables may be continuous, ordinal or nominal. Quantitative variables are continuous or discrete.

  • Information conveyed by tables and figures may be theoretical or data itself.

  • Ideal table: (1) Self-explanatory (2) standardised (3) Contains a title (4) Numbered.

  • Ideal figure: (1) Title (2) Self-explanatory (3) Scale (4) Legends and axes must be labelled.

  • Understanding the use of table and figures helps collaborate results and prevents their misuse or overuse in scientific papers.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sudhir Kumar Jain
    • 1
  • Rohit Kaushik
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryMaulana Azad Medical College and Lok Nayak HospitalNew DelhiIndia

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