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Diabetic Retinopathy: Clinical, Genetic, and Health Economics (An Asian Perspective)

  • Siddhita Nare
  • Sunita Mohan
  • Uthra Satagopan
  • Sundaram Natarajan
  • Govindasamy Kumaramanickavel
Chapter
Part of the Essentials in Ophthalmology book series (ESSENTIALS)

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus is the fastest growing disease in the world that is estimated to reach nearly half a billion in 2045, and a third of them would have microvascular complication like diabetic retinopathy (DR). Hyperglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia are some of the controllable risk factors. DR is classified into nonproliferative, proliferative, and macular edema types. Many molecular factors like VEGF, ALR2, eNOS, MTHFR, ACE, IGF, and RAGE and its associated single nucleotide polymorphisms play a critical role in the process of neovascularization. Some of the drug discovery and newer treatment regimens are based on these molecular factors. More research by the clinicians, epidemiologists, and vision scientists is necessary to reduce the visual morbidity and disease burden of DR in the community.

Keywords

Diabetic retinopathy Health economics Genetic susceptibility Type 2 diabetes mellitus Prevalence 

Notes

Conflict of Interest

None of the authors have any proprietary interests or conflicts of interest related to this submission.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Siddhita Nare
    • 1
  • Sunita Mohan
    • 1
  • Uthra Satagopan
    • 2
  • Sundaram Natarajan
    • 1
  • Govindasamy Kumaramanickavel
    • 1
  1. 1.Aditya Jyot Foundation for Twinkling Little EyesMumbaiIndia
  2. 2.Centre for Medical GeneticsChennaiIndia

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