Advertisement

CRISPR-Cas Systems Regulate Quorum Sensing Genes and Alter Virulence in Bacteria

  • Qinqin Pu
  • Min Wu
Chapter

Abstract

Although understanding how CRISPR and its associated systems are controlled is at the infant stages, recent studies present exciting discoveries in this fast-moving field. A number of studies find that CRISPR-Cas systems regulate quorum sensing (QS) genes by targeting and degrading lasR mRNA, while QS systems can also modulate the CRISPR-Cas as revealed in more recent reports. The importance of the QS system for bacterial pathogenicity is well recognized and the indispensable features of CRISPR-Cas in adaptive immunity and biotechnology application are gaining great attention. Analyzing interaction between QS and CRISPR-Cas systems represents an interesting field as CRISPR-Cas systems are not only the adaptive immunity of bacteria, but also the regulators of their own genes. Undoubtedly, the continued understanding of molecular basis of CRISPR-Cas action and regulation may indicate novel strategies for treatment of bacterial infections.

Keywords

CRISPR-Cas systems Quorum sensing Endogenous gene targeting 

References

  1. Atkinson S, Williams P (2009) Quorum sensing and social networking in the microbial world. J R Soc Interface 6:959–978.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2009.0203CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Cady KC, O’Toole GA (2011) Non-identity-mediated CRISPR-bacteriophage interaction mediated via the Csy and Cas3 proteins. J Bacteriol 193:3433–3445.  https://doi.org/10.1128/JB.01411-10CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Cao Q, Wang Y, Chen F, Xia Y, Lou J, Zhang X, Yang N, Sun X, Zhang Q, Zhuo C, Huang X, Deng X, Yang CG, Ye Y, Zhao J, Wu M, Lan L (2014) A novel signal transduction pathway that modulates rhl quorum sensing and bacterial virulence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PLoS Pathog 10:e1004340.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004340CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Carloni S, Macchi R, Sattin S, Ferrara S, Bertoni G (2017) The small RNA ReaL: a novel regulatory element embedded in the Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing networks. Environ Microbiol.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.13886
  5. Das T, Kutty SK, Tavallaie R, Ibugo AI, Panchompoo J, Sehar S, Aldous L, Yeung AW, Thomas SR, Kumar N, Gooding JJ, Manefield M (2015) Phenazine virulence factor binding to extracellular DNA is important for Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation. Sci Rep 5:8398.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep08398CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Fu Q, Su Z, Cheng Y, Wang Z, Li S, Wang H, Sun J, Yan Y (2017) Clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) diversity and virulence factor distribution in avian Escherichia coli. Res Microbiol 168:147–156.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resmic.2016.10.002CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Green ER, Mecsas J (2016) Bacterial secretion systems: an overview. Microbiol Spectr 4:1–19.  https://doi.org/10.1128/microbiolspec.VMBF-0012-2015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Heidrich N, Vogel J (2013) CRISPRs extending their reach: prokaryotic RNAi protein Cas9 recruited for gene regulation. EMBO J 32:1802–1804.  https://doi.org/10.1038/emboj.2013.141CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Heussler GE, Miller JL, Price CE, Collins AJ, O’Toole GA (2016) Requirements for Pseudomonas aeruginosa type I-F CRISPR-Cas adaptation determined using a biofilm enrichment assay. J Bacteriol 198:3080–3090.  https://doi.org/10.1128/JB.00458-16CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Hurley A, Bassler BL (2017) Asymmetric regulation of quorum-sensing receptors drives autoinducer-specific gene expression programs in Vibrio cholerae. PLoS Genet 13:e1006826.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1006826CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Lee J, Zhang L (2015) The hierarchy quorum sensing network in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Protein Cell 6:26–41.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13238-014-0100-xCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Li R, Fang L, Tan S, Yu M, Li X, He S, Wei Y, Li G, Jiang J, Wu M (2016) Type I CRISPR-Cas targets endogenous genes and regulates virulence to evade mammalian host immunity. Cell Res 26:1273–1287.  https://doi.org/10.1038/cr.2016.135CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Liu L, Li X, Ma J, Li Z, You L, Wang J, Wang M, Zhang X, Wang Y (2017a) The molecular architecture for RNA-guided RNA cleavage by Cas13a. Cell 170:714–726 e710.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2017.06.050CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Liu L, Li X, Wang J, Wang M, Chen P, Yin M, Li J, Sheng G, Wang Y (2017b) Two distant catalytic sites are responsible for C2c2 RNase activities. Cell 168:121–134 e112.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2016.12.031CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Marraffini LA, Sontheimer EJ (2010) CRISPR interference: RNA-directed adaptive immunity in bacteria and archaea. Nat Rev Genet 11:181–190.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nrg2749CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Patterson AG, Jackson SA, Evans TC, Salmond GB, Przybilski GP, Staals RH R, Fineran PC (2016) Quorum sensing controls adaptive immunity through the regulation of multiple CRISPR-Cas systems. Mol Cell 64:1102–1108.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2016.11.012CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Pausch P, Muller-Esparza H, Gleditzsch D, Altegoer F, Randau L, Bange G (2017) Structural variation of type I-F CRISPR RNA guided DNA surveillance. Mol Cell 67:622–632.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2017.06.036CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Puschnik AS, Majzoub K, Ooi YS, Carette JE (2017) A CRISPR toolbox to study virus-host interactions. Nat Rev Microbiol 15:351–364.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro.2017.29CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Qi LS, Larson MH, Gilber LA, Doudna JA, Weissman JS, Arkin AP, Lim WA (2013) Repurposing CRISPR as an RNA-guided platform for sequence-specific control of gene expression. Cell 152:1173–1183.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2013.02.022CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Sampson TR, Saroj SD, Llewellyn AC, Tzeng YL, Weis DS (2013) A CRISPR/Cas system mediates bacterial innate immune evasion and virulence. Nature 497:254–257.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature12048CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Schaefer AL, Lappala CR, Morlen RP, Pelletier DA, Lu T-YS, Lankford PK, Harwood CS, Peter Greenberg E (2013) LuxR- and LuxI-Type Quorum-Sensing Circuits Are Prevalent in Members of the Populus deltoides Microbiome. Appl Environ Microbiol 79(18):5745–5752Google Scholar
  22. Semenova E, Severinov K (2016) Come together: CRISPR-Cas immunity senses the quorum. Mol Cell 64:1013–1015.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2016.11.037CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Shao C, Shang W, Yang Z, Sun Z, Li Y, Guo J, Wang X, Zou D, Wang S, Lei H, Cui Q, Yin Z, Li X, Wei X, Liu W, He X, Jiang Z, Du S, Liao X, Huang L, Wang Y, Yuan J (2012) LuxS-dependent AI-2 regulates versatile functions in Enterococcus faecalis V583. J Proteome Res 11:4465–4475.  https://doi.org/10.1021/pr3002244CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Song M (2017) The CRISPR/Cas9 system: their delivery, in vivo and ex vivo applications and clinical development by startups. Biotechnol Prog 33:1035–1043.  https://doi.org/10.1002/btpr.2484CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Stern A, Keren L, Wurtze O, Amitai G, Sorek R (2010) Self-targeting by CRISPR: gene regulation or autoimmunity? Trends Genet 26:335–340.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tig.2010.05.008CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Tan CH, Koh KS, Xie C, Zhang J, Tan XH, Lee GP, Zhou Y, Ng WJ, Rice SA, Kjelleberg S (2015) Community quorum sensing signalling and quenching: microbial granular biofilm assembly. NPJ Biofilms Microbiomes 1:15006.  https://doi.org/10.1038/npjbiofilms.2015.6CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Vuotto C, Longo F, Pascolini C, Donell G, Balice MP, Libori MF, Varaldo PE (2017) Biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae urinary strains. J Appl Microbiol. 123:1003–1018.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jam.13533
  28. Westra ER, Brouns SJ (2012) The rise and fall of CRISPRs – dynamics of spacer acquisition and loss. Mol Microbiol 85:1021–1025.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2958.2012.08170.xCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Wright AV, Liu JJ, Knott GJ, Doxzen KW, Nogales E, Doudna JA (2017) Structures of the CRISPR genome integration complex. Science 64:eaao0679.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aao0679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Yosef I, Goren MG, Qimron U (2012) Proteins and DNA elements essential for the CRISPR adaptation process in Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Res 40:5569–5576.  https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gks216CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Yu D, Zhao L, Xue T, Sun B (2012) Staphylococcus aureus autoinducer-2 quorum sensing decreases biofilm formation in an icaR-dependent manner. BMC Microbiol 12:288.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2180-12-288CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Zegans ME, Wagner JC, Cady KC, Murphy DM, Hammond JH, O’Toole GA (2009) Interaction between bacteriophage DMS3 and host CRISPR region inhibits group behaviors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Bacteriol 191:210–219.  https://doi.org/10.1128/JB.00797-08CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Zuberi A, Misb L, Khan AU (2017) CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) inhibition of luxS gene expression in E. coli: an approach to inhibit biofilm. Front Cell Infect Microbiol 7:214.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2017.00214CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biomedical SciencesUniversity of North DakotaGrand ForksUSA
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China HospitalSichuan UniversityChengduChina

Personalised recommendations