Advertisement

Enhanced CDMA System with Secure Scrambling

  • Tongtong Li
  • Tianlong Song
  • Yuan Liang
Chapter

Abstract

In this chapter, we consider robust CDMA system design and capacity analysis under disguised jamming, where the jammer generates a fake signal using the same spreading code, constellation, and pulse shaping filter as that of the authorized signal. First, we analyze the performance of conventional CDMA systems under disguised jamming and show that due to the symmetricity between the authorized signal and the jamming interference, the receiver cannot distinguish the authorized signal from jamming, leading to complete communication failure. Second, we explore effective CDMA system design under disguised jamming. We find that it is possible to combat disguised jamming through careful receiver design, by exploiting the time difference between the authorized signal and the jamming interference. However, this approach only works when the time difference between the authorized signal and the jamming is significant enough. A more reliable approach is to equip CDMA with secure scrambling, where we apply Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) to generate the scrambling codes. This approach performs well even if when the authorized signal and the jamming are perfectly synchronized. Based on the information theory, we show that the AVC corresponding to the conventional CDMA is symmetric and hence results in zero deterministic code capacity. On the other hand, the AVC corresponding to securely scrambled CDMA is not symmetrizable and hence can achieve a positive deterministic code capacity under disguised jamming.

References

  1. 1.
    S. Barbarossa and A. Scaglione, “Adaptive time-varying cancellation of wideband interferences in spread-spectrum communications based on time-frequency distributions,” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 957–965, Apr 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    S. Aromaa, P. Henttu, and M. Juntti, “Transform-selective interference suppression algorithm for spread-spectrum communications,” IEEE Signal Processing Letters, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 49–51, Jan 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    C.-L. Wang and K.-M. Wu, “A new narrowband interference suppression scheme for spread-spectrum CDMA communications,” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 2832–2838, Nov 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    H. Holma and A. Toskala, WCDMA for UMTS: HSPA Evolution and LTE. New York, NY, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    E. Kaplan, Understanding GPS - Principles and applications, 2nd ed. Artech House, December 2005.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. Massey, “Shift-register synthesis and BCH decoding,” IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 122–127, Jan 1969.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    T. Li, Q. Ling, and J. Ren, “Physical layer built-in security analysis and enhancement algorithms for CDMA systems,” EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, vol. 2007, no. 1, p. 083589, 2007.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    T. Ericson, “The noncooperative binary adder channel,” IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 365–374, 1986.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. Medard, “Capacity of correlated jamming channels,” in Allerton Conference on Communications, Computing and Control, 1997.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    L. Zhang, H. Wang, and T. Li, “Anti-jamming message-driven frequency hopping-part i: System design,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 70–79, Jan. 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    R. Nikjah and N. C. Beaulieu, “On antijamming in general cdma systems-part i: multiuser capacity analysis,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 1646–1655, May 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    T. Ericson, “Exponential error bounds for random codes in the arbitrarily varying channel,” IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 42–48, 1985.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    S. Bhashyam and B. Aazhang, “Multiuser channel estimation and tracking for long-code CDMA systems,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 50, no. 7, pp. 1081–1090, Jul 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    C. J. Escudero, U. Mitra, and D. T. M. Slock, “A Toeplitz displacement method for blind multipath estimation for long code DS/CDMA signals,” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 654–665, Mar 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    A. J. Weiss and B. Friedlander, “Channel estimation for DS-CDMA downlink with aperiodic spreading codes,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 47, no. 10, pp. 1561–1569, Oct 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    M. Sahmoudi and M. Amin, “Fast iterative maximum-likelihood algorithm (FIMLA) for multipath mitigation in the next generation of GNSS receivers,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 7, no. 11, pp. 4362–4374, November 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Z. Xu and P. Liu, “Code-constrained blind detection of CDMA signals in multipath channels,” IEEE Signal Processing Letters, vol. 9, no. 12, pp. 389–392, Dec 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Advanced Encryption Standard, ser. FIPS-197, National Institute of Standards and Technology Std., Nov. 2001. [Online]. Available: http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/fips/fips197/fips-197.pdf
  19. 19.
    T. Song, K. Zhou, and T. Li, “CDMA system design and capacity analysis under disguised jamming,” IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 2487–2498, Nov 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Data Encryption Standard, ser. FIPS-46-3, National Institute of Standards and Technology Std., Oct. 1999. [Online]. Available: http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/fips/fips46-3/fips46-3.pdf
  21. 21.
    J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications, 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    D. Blackwell, L. Breiman, and A. J. Thomasian, “The capacities of certain channel classes under random coding,” The Annals of Mathematical Statistics, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 558–567, 1960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    R. Ahlswede, “Elimination of correlation in random codes for arbitrarily varying channels,” Z. Wahrscheinlichkeitstheorie und Verwandte Gebiete, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 159–175, 1978.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    A. Lapidoth and P. Narayan, “Reliable communication under channel uncertainty,” IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 2148–2177, 1998.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tongtong Li
    • 1
  • Tianlong Song
    • 2
  • Yuan Liang
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA
  2. 2.Zillow IncSeattleUSA

Personalised recommendations