‘Invasion’ of Educational Universe by Neo-Liberal Economic Thinking: A Global Casualty?

  • Arup Maharatna


In the preceding part of the book, we have shown how a decided neglect on the part of Indian political leadership towards the importance of ideational and social revolutions in line with Western Enlightenment ideas and values has contributed to holding the country in a state of perpetual metamorphosis, and also how India’s school educational thinking during the prime formative decades after Independence laid a foundation of a distinct legacy of bypassing a crucial task of imparting—through inter alias suitably designed curriculum and textbooks—the core Enlightenment values including the supremacy of reason, rationality, secularity and universalistic humanism into young impressionable minds, outlook and attitudes.


  1. Arum, R., and J. Roksa. 2010. Academically Adrift: Limited Learning on College Campuses. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arum, R., and J. Roksa. 2011. Are Undergraduates Actually Learning Anything?. The Chronicle of Higher Education, January 18. Accessed from 15 November 2013.
  3. Babcock, P., and M. Marks. 2007. The Falling Time Cost of College: Evidence from Half a Century of Time Use Data. (mimeo), Institute of Government Affairs, University of California, Davis.…labour2007/.
  4. Barber, B.R. 1972. Science, Salience and Comparative Education: Some Reflections on Social Scientific Inquiry. Comparative Education Review 16 (3): 424–436. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barnett, Ronald. 2003. Beyond All Reason: Living With Ideology in the University. Buckingham: Society for Research into Higher Education and the Open University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Blaug, M. 1968. Economics of Education, vol. 1. New York: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  7. Bloom, A. 1987. The Closing of the American Mind. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  8. Bowen, W.G. 2012. The “Cost Disease” in Higher Education: Is Technology the Answer? The Tanner Lectures, October, Stanford University.Google Scholar
  9. Challahan, R.E. 1962. Education and the Cult of Efficiency. Chicago: Chicago University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Chappell, B. 2013. US Students Slide in Global Ranking on Maths, Reading, Science. National Public Radio. Accessed on 21 November 2017.
  11. Chomsky, N., others. 1997. The War & The University. New York: New Press.Google Scholar
  12. Cohen, D.K., and B. Neufeld. 1981. The Failure of High Schools and the Progress of Education. Daedalus 110 (3): 69–89.Google Scholar
  13. Davis, R. 2007. “Whose Education Is It Anyway”: Why It Is Important That Teachers Understand and Question the Broader Contexts Shaping Curriculum. New Zealand Journal of Teachers’ Work 4 (1): 32–38.Google Scholar
  14. Desai, Meghnad. 2002. Public Goods: A Historical Perspective. In Providing Public Goods, ed. UNDP. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Duderstandt, J. 2012. The Future of the University: A perspective from the Oort Cloud. Social Research 79 (3): 579–600.Google Scholar
  16. Easterly, W. 2001. The Elusive Quest for Growth. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  17. Education Counts. 2014. Reading Literacy Achievement: Senior Secondary Schooling. Accessed on 21 November 2017.
  18. Edwards, D. 2014. American Schools Are Training Kids for a World That Doesn’t Exist. Wired Accessed on 21 November 2017.
  19. Gatto, J.T. 1992. Dumbing Us Down: The Hidden Curriculum of Compulsory Schooling. Chicago: New Society Publishers.Google Scholar
  20. Ghosh, A., and S. Bandyopadhyay. 2018. ASER 2017 Shows India’s Secondary Education is Failing to Impart Basic Skills. WIRE, 20 January. Accessed from
  21. Gibney, Elizabeth. 2013. Robbins: 50 Years Later. The Times Higher Education, 24 October.Google Scholar
  22. Gilead, T. 2013. Educational Policy and the Methodology of Positive Economics: A Critical Examination. Paper Presented at the Annual Conference Organised by Philosophy of Education Society, New College, Oxford, UK.Google Scholar
  23. Giroux, H. 1988. Schooling and the Struggle for Public Life. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  24. Giroux, H. 1998. Education Incorporated?. Educational Leadership 56 (2): 12–17. Google Scholar
  25. GoI, MHRD. 1993. Learning Without Burden: Report of the National Advisory Committee Appointed by the Ministry of Human Resource Development. New Delhi: MHRD.Google Scholar
  26. Grace, Gerald. 1989. Education: Commodity or Public Good. British Journal of Educational Studies 37 (3) (August): 207–221. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Green, D., A. De Waal, and B. Cackett. 2005. Education: Better Results and Declining Standards? Accessed from on 12 November 2013.
  28. Guisbond, Lisa. 2012. NCLB’s Lost Decade for Educational Progress: What Can We Learn from This Policy Failure? (With Monty Neill and Bob Schaeffer). Available at Accessed on 25 November 2017.
  29. Hobsbawm, Eric. 1999. Industry and Empire: The Birth of the Industrial Revolution. New York: The New Press.Google Scholar
  30. Hyslop-Margison, E.J., and B. Graham. 2003. Principles for Democratic Learning in Career Education. Canadian Journal of Education 26 (3): 333–344.Google Scholar
  31. Hyslop-Margison, E.J., and A.M. Sears. 2006. Neo-Liberalism, Globalization and Human Capital Learning: Reclaiming Education for Democratic Citizenship. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  32. Kazamias, A.M. 1963. History, Science, Comparative Education: A Study in Methodology. International Review of Education VIII: 383–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kazamias, A.M. 1972. Comparative Pedagogy: Assignment for the ‘70s. Comparative Education Review 16(3): 406–411. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kazamias, A.M., and K. Schwartz. 1977. Intellectual and Ideological Perspectives in Comparative Education. Comparative Education Review 21 (2/3): 153–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kirp, D.L. 2004. Shakespeare, Einstein, and the Bottom Line: The Marketing of Higher Education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Krassén, P. 2014. The Importance of the Signalling Mechanism in Higher Education. In Blue Skies: New Thanking About the Future of Higher Education, ed. L. Coiffait. London: Pearson.Google Scholar
  37. Kuh, G. 1999. How Are We Doing? Tracking the Quality of the Undergraduate Experience, 1960s to Present. The Review of Higher Education 22 (2): 99–120.Google Scholar
  38. Labaree, D.F. 1997. Public Goods, Private Goods: The American Struggle Over Educational Goals. American Educational Research Journal 34 (1): 39–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lazear, E.P. 1999. Economic Imperialism. Hoover Institution and Graduate School of Business Stanford University (mimeo).Google Scholar
  40. Machlup, F. 1970. Education and Economic Growth. Loncoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  41. Maharatna, A. 2014. Invasion of Educational Universe by Neo-Liberal Economic Thinking: A Civilizational Casualty? Economic and Political Weekly 49 (37): 61–70. Google Scholar
  42. Majumdar, M., and J. Mooij. 2012. The Marks Race: India’s Dominant Education Regime and New Segmentation. In School Education, Pluralism and Marginality: Comperative Perspectives, ed. C. Sleeter et al. Hyderabad: Orient Blackswan.Google Scholar
  43. McKernan, J. 2008. Curriculum and Imagination. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  44. Mulcahy, D.G. 2010. Praxis and Pedagogy as Related to the Arts and Humanities. Arts and Humanities in Higher Education 9 (3): 305–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Myrdal, G. 1968. Asian Drama, 3 Vols. London: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  46. Nanda, P.K. 2018. India’s Learning Deficit Is Worsening: ASER Study. Livemint 17 January. Accessed from
  47. Naussbaum, M. 2008. Education for Profit, Education for Freedom. Special Lecture No.1, Institute of Development Studies, Kolkata.Google Scholar
  48. NCERT. 2005. National Curriculum Framework 2005. New Delhi: NCERT.Google Scholar
  49. New York State Education Department. 2009. Federal Education and the States 1945–2009. Albany: New York State Archives.Google Scholar
  50. OECD. 2011. Education at a Glance 2011: OECD Indicators. OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
  51. Osborne, S. 2017. Number of Teachers Cheating to Get Better Exam Results Up Fourfold in Four Years, Finds Report. The Independent, 16 November.Google Scholar
  52. Preece, P.F.W. 1971. The Laissez-Faire Finance of Education. British Journal of Educational Studies 19 (2): 154–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Pritchett, L. 2001. Where Has All the Education Gone? World Bank Economic Review 15 (3): 367–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Pritchett, L. 2013. Rebirth of Education: Schooling Ain’t Learning. New York: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
  55. Roberts, P. 1998. The Politics of Curriculum Reform in New Zealand. Curriculum Studies 6 (1): 29–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Russell, Bertrand. 1926. On Education. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd.Google Scholar
  57. Selfe, D. 2007. English Studies and University Experience as Intellectual Property: Commodification and the Spellings Report. Accessed from on 14 November 2013.
  58. Shaffer, B. 1993. The Blinding Torch: Modern British Fiction and the Discourse of Civilization. Amherst: The University of Massachusetts Press.Google Scholar
  59. Teixeira, P.N. 2000. A Portrait of the Economics of Education, 1960–1997. History of Political Economy 32 (suppl. 1): 257–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. The Conversation. 2013. New PISA Results Show Education Decline—It’s Time to Stop the Slide, 3 December.Google Scholar
  61. The Independent. 2016. UK Schools Falling Behind Leading Countries, New Global Rankings Reveal, London, 6 December.Google Scholar
  62. The Telegraph. 2016. UK Children Falling Behind in Maths Due to “Superficial” Learning, 13 March.Google Scholar
  63. Tilak, J.B.G. 2006. Economics of Human Capital. Key-Note Address, 89th Annual Conference of the Indian Economic Association, Conference Volume, Indian Economic Journal.Google Scholar
  64. UNESCO. 1968. Readings in the Economics of Education. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  65. UNESCO. 1996. Learning: The Treasure Within. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  66. Vaizey, J. 1962. Introduction. International Social Science Journal XIV (4): 619–632.Google Scholar
  67. West, E.G. 1964. Private Versus Public Education—A Classical Economic Dispute. Journal of Political Economy 72 (5) (October): 465–475. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. West, E.G. 1965. Education and the State: A Study in Political Economy. London: Institute of Economic Affairs.Google Scholar
  69. Wolf, A. 2002. Does Education Matter?: Myths About Education and Economic Growth. New York: Penguin.Google Scholar
  70. Wolff, E.N. 2000. Human Capital Investment and Economic Growth: Exploring the Cross-Country Evidence. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics 11: 433–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Woodfill, B. 1963. The Economics of Education: A Survey, Technical Report No. 12, Centre for Research in Management Science, University of California.Google Scholar
  72. Woodside, A. 2011. Challenging the Notion of Higher Education. Accessed from on 16 December 2017.
  73. World Bank. 2018. World Development Report 2018: Learning to Realize Education’s Promise. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arup Maharatna
    • 1
  1. 1.Independent ScholarKolkataIndia

Personalised recommendations