Targets and Supporting Strategies for the Clean Energy Development in Delhi

  • Mahendra SethiEmail author


IEA’s flagship The World Energy Outlook (2016) estimates urban energy related CO2 emissions as above 20Gt, i.e. over 70% of the global total. Cities in non-Annex I countries (which are mostly developing countries) generally have much higher levels of energy use compared to the national average, in contrast to cities in Annex-I countries, which generally have lower energy use per capita than national averages. Indian cities host 32% of the national population, yet these contribute to 85% of energy production through thermal plants and 66.5–70.3% of national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Low-grade coal, low efficiency and power-load factor of these plants are responsible not only for growing global GHGs but poor air-quality in the cities too. Meanwhile, there is an emerging interest and application in favour of clean energy (CE) globally. The World Energy Outlook foresees a strong potential in the growth of CE to meet the increasing energy demand until 2040. Its relevance to urbanization and cities is immense particularly in rapidly developing Asia, as given due credence by IPCC’s 5th Assessment Report too. However, response of Asian cities towards clean energy and climate issues is relatively incipient and riddled with several technical and policy related challenges, as demonstrated by India’s capital city – New Delhi. This research qualitatively examines some of the key initiatives, including public policies, their targets and supporting strategies undertaken for CE development in Delhi. This is substantiated by assimilating evidence through case studies in urban energy, transport and waste sectors in Delhi and analyzing these for their effectiveness. The study thus evaluates the current situation, demand-supply gaps, etc. thereby inferring opportunities and challenges to realize a clean and green future for the city.


Clean energy Governance framework Delhi 


  1. Balban O, Doll CNH (2013) A methodology for evaluating environmental co-benefits in the transport sector: application to the Delhi metro. J Clean Prod 58:61–71Google Scholar
  2. Basu I (2017) Air pollution contributed to over 80,000 deaths in Delhi and Mumbai in 2015: study. Huffington Post – India edition. Accessed on 25 Jan 2017
  3. Bulkeley H, Betsill M (2003) Cities and climate change: urban sustainability and global environmental governance. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  4. Carney S, Green N, Wood R, Read R (2009) Greenhouse gas emissions inventories for eighteen European regions, EU CO2 80/50 Project Stage 1: inventory formation. The greenhouse gas regional inventory protocol (GRIP). Centre for Urban and Regional Ecology, School of Environment and Development, University of Manchester, ManchesterGoogle Scholar
  5. CEA (2017) Peak power supply position report (2016–2017). Central Electricity Authority, Ministry of Power, Government Of India, New Delhi Google Scholar
  6. Census of India (2011) Provisional population totals 2011, paper II, 2. Census of India, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  7. CPCB (2013) Status report on municipal solid waste management. Central pollution Contro Board, New Delhi Retrieved from Scholar
  8. CPHEEO (2016) Municipal solid waste management manual, part II: the manual. Central Public Health And Environmental Engineering Organisation (CPHEEO), Ministry Of Urban Development, New Delhi Google Scholar
  9. CSE (2015) Delhi clean-air action plan. Centre for Science & Environment, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  10. CSE (2017) Down to Earth: Delhi solid waste- a systematic failure (11 January 2017). Centre for Science & Environment, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  11. DPCC (2017) Release of subsidy to E-rickshaw owners directly by transport department. Delhi Pollution Control Committee, Delhi Government, New Delhi Google Scholar
  12. Farzaneh H, Doll CNH, Puppim de Oliveira JA (2016) An integrated supply-demand model for the optimization of energy flow in the urban energy system. J Clean Prod 14(2016):269–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. GEA (2012) Global energy assessment—Toward a sustainable future. Cambridge University Press/International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Cambridge/New York/LaxenburgGoogle Scholar
  14. GNCTD (2009) Delhi statistical handbook-2009. Directorate of Economics & Statistics, Government of NCT of Delhi, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  15. GNCTD (2010) State of environment report for Delhi, 2010. Department of Environment and Forests, Government of NCT of Delhi, New Delhi Google Scholar
  16. GNCTD (2016) Delhi solar policy, 2016 (notification). Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Management Centre, Department of Power, Government of NCT Delhi, New Delhi Google Scholar
  17. IEA (2017) World energy outlook (2016). OECD/IEA Publications, Paris Google Scholar
  18. IIT Kanpur Study (2016) Comprehensive study on air pollution and green house gases (GHGs) in Delhi (final report: air pollution component). Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, KanpurGoogle Scholar
  19. IPCC (2014) Climate change 2014: mitigation of climate change. In: Edenhofer O, Pichs-Madruga R, Sokona Y, Farahani E, Kadner S, Seyboth K et al (eds) Contribution of working group III to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  20. Lancet (2009). Public health benefits and strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions: urban land transport, 374.9705Google Scholar
  21. MNRE (2016) Annual report 2016–17. Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Government of India, New Delhi Google Scholar
  22. MoEF (2015) India’s intended nationally determined contribution: working towards climate justice. Ministry of Environment & Forests, Government of India, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  23. MSW Rules (2000) Municipal solid waste rules (notification). Ministry of Environment and Forests, New Delhi Google Scholar
  24. NCRPB (2017) Districts of national capital region. National Capital Region Planning Board, Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, Government of India, New Delhi Google Scholar
  25. OECD (2009) Cities, climate change and multilevel governance. OECD Environmental Working Papers No 14. OECD Publishing, Paris, pp 30–44Google Scholar
  26. Peters GP (2010) Carbon footprints and embodied carbon at multiple scales. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 2:245–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Planning Commission (2014). Report of the task force on waste to energy, I (May). Planning Commission, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  28. Rue du Can S, Wenzel T, Fischer M (2008) Spatial disaggregation of CO2 emissions for the state of California. Environmental Energy Technologies Division, BerkeleyCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sahai S, Bishop S (2009) Bus system reform in Delhi. Delhi Integrated Multi-Modal Transit System Limited, New Delhi Google Scholar
  30. Sasi A (2017) BS-VI emission norms for vehicles: so near and yet so far, here is why. Trhe Indian Express, New Delhi November 20, 2017. Google Scholar
  31. Sethi M (2017) Climate change and urban settlements – a spatial perspective of carbon footprint and beyond (ISBN: 9781138226005). Taylor & Francis/Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  32. Sethi M, Mohapatra S (2013) Governance framework to mitigate climate change: challenges in urbanising India. In: Ha H, Dhakal TN (eds) Governance approaches to mitigation of and adaptation to climate change in Asia. Palgrave Macmillan, Hampshire, pp 200–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sethi M, de Oliveira P, Jose A (2015) From global ‘north-south’ to local ‘urban-rural’: a shifting paradigm in climate governance? Urban Clim 14(4):529–543. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Srivastava L, Mahajan D (2011) India’s energy challenges: Defining a framework of action. Management in Government, 4 (2011).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Technical UniversityLucknowIndia

Personalised recommendations