Advertisement

Pretreatment Process and Its Synergistic Effects on Enzymatic Digestion of Lignocellulosic Material

  • Yu-Cai He
  • Cui-Luan Ma
  • Bin Yang
Chapter

Abstract

In this chapter, the progress of pretreatment for enhancing the enzymatic digestion of lignocellulosic material is introduced. Furthermore, the pretreatment process and its synergistic effects on enzymatic digestion of lignocellulosic material are discussed. In general, the lignocellulose structure is mainly composed by three major components (hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin). Cellulose microfibrils are coated with amorphous hemicellulose matrices building holocellulose structures and severely protected by non-sugar lignin outside. To overcome the inherent structural recalcitrance and enhance the sequential enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic materials, pretreatment is an indispensable step to be developed for making cellulose more accessible to cellulases. Enzymatic hydrolysis that bioconverts the pretreated lignocellulosic material with cellulases into fermentable sugars is known as the most complex step in this biological process due to enzyme-related and substrate-related effects and substrate-enzyme interactions. Thus, topics are summarized including characteristics of cellulose (e.g., degree of polymerization, crystallinity, and accessible surface area) and other components (e.g., oligomeric xylan and lignin) released from the pretreatment of lignocellulosic material and their effects on the effectiveness of enzymatic saccharification.

Keywords

Pretreatment Biomass Enzymatic saccharification Cellulose Hemicellulose Lignin 

References

  1. Abdullah R, Ueda K, Saka S (2014) Hydrothermal decomposition of various crystalline celluloses as treated by semi-flow hot-compressed water. J Wood Sci 60:278–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agbor VB, Cicek N, Sparling R, Berlin A, Levin DB (2011) Biomass pretreatment: fundamentals toward application. Biotechnol Adv 29:675–685CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Aguiar A, Ferraz A (2008) Relevance of extractives and wood transformation products on the biodegradation of Pinus taeda by Ceriporiopsis subvermispora. Int Biodeter Biodegr 61:182–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aguiar A, Souza-Cruz PB, Ferraz A (2006) Oxalic acid, Fe3+-reduction activity and oxidative enzymes detected in culture extracts recovered from Pinus taeda wood chips biotreated by Ceriporiopsis subvermispora. Enzym Microb Technol 38:873–878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aguiar A, Gavioli D, Ferraz A (2013) Extracellular activities and wood component losses during Pinus taeda biodegradation by the brown-rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum. Int Biodeter Biodegr 82:187–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Aita GA, Salvi DA, Walker MS (2011) Enzyme hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation of dilute ammonia pretreated energy cane. Bioresour Technol 102:4444–4448CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Alizadeh H, Teymouri F, Gilbert TI, Dale BE (2005) Pretreatment of switchgrass by ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX). Appl Biochem Biotechnol 121–124:1133CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Alvira P, Tomáspejó E, Ballesteros M, Negro MJ, Pandey A (2010) Pretreatment technologies for an efficient bioethanol production process based on enzymatic hydrolysis: a review. Bioresour Technol 101:4851–4861CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Andanson JM, Costa Gomes MF (2015) Thermodynamics of cellulose dissolution in an imidazolium acetate ionic liquid. Chem Commun 51:4485–4487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Arvaniti E, Bjerre AB, Schmidt JE (2012) Wet oxidation pretreatment of rape straw for ethanol production. Biomass Bioenergy 39:94–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Azzam AM (1989) Pretreatment of cane bagasse with alkaline hydrogen peroxide for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and ethanol fermentation. J Environ Sci Health Part B 24:421–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bak JS, Ko JK, Han YH, Lee BC, Choi IG, Kim KH (2009) Improved enzymatic hydrolysis yield of rice straw using electron beam irradiation pretreatment. Bioresour Technol 100:1285–1290CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bali G, Meng X, Deneff JI, Sun Q, Ragauskas AJ (2015) The effect of alkaline pretreatment methods on cellulose structure and accessibility. ChemSusChem 8:275–279CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Banerjee S, Sen R, Pandey RA, Chakrabarti T, Satpute D, Giri BS, Mudliar S (2009) Evaluation of wet air oxidation as a pretreatment strategy for bioethanol production from rice husk and process optimization. Biomass Bioenergy 33:1680–1686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Banerjee S, Sen R, Mudliar S, Pandey RA, Chakrabarti T, Satpute D (2011) Alkaline peroxide assisted wet air oxidation pretreatment approach to enhance enzymatic convertibility of rice husk. Biotechnol Prog 27:691–697CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Benghedalia D, Dror GSY (1983) Chemical treatments for increasing the digestibility of cotton straw: 1. Effect of ozone and sodium hydroxide treatments on rumen metabolism and on the digestibility of cell walls and organic matter. J Agric Sci 100:393–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ben-Ghedalia D, Miron J (1981) The effect of combined chemical and enzyme treatments on the saccharification and in vitro digestion rate of wheat straw. Biotechnol Bioeng 23:823–831CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bhatt SM, Shilpa (2014) Lignocellulosic feedstock conversion, inhibitor detoxification and cellulosic hydrolysis – a review. Biofuels 5:633–649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Biganska O, Navard P (2009) Morphology of cellulose objects regenerated from cellulose-N-methy morpholine N-oxide-water solutions. Cellulose 16:179–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bjerre AB, Olesen AB, Fernqvist T, Plöger A, Schmidt AS (1996) Pretreatment of wheat straw using combined wet oxidation and alkaline hydrolysis resulting in convertible cellulose and hemicellulose. Biotechnol Bioeng 49:568–577CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Brodeur G, Yau E, Badal K, Collier J, Ramachandran KB, Ramakrishnan S (2011) Chemical and physicochemical pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass: a review. Enzyme Res 2011:787–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cadoche L, López GD (1989) Assessment of size reduction as a preliminary step in the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic wastes. Biol Wastes 30:153–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cao WX, Sun C, Liu RH, Yin RZ, Wu XW (2012) Comparison of the effects of five pretreatment methods on enhancing the enzymatic digestibility and ethanol production from sweet sorghum bagasse. Bioresour Technol 111:215–221CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Case PA, Truong C, Wheeler MC, DeSisto WJ (2015) Calcium-catalyzed pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass components. Bioresour Technol 192:247–252CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Chang VS, Burr B, Holtzapple MT (1997) Lime pretreatment of switchgrass. Humana Press, TotowaCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chaturvedi V, Verma P (2013) An overview of key pretreatment processes employed for bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels and value added products. Biotech 3:415–431Google Scholar
  27. Chen W, Yu H, Liu Y, Chen P, Zhang M, Hai Y (2011) Individualization of cellulose nanofibers from wood using high-intensity ultrasonication combined with chemical pretreatments. Carbohydr Polym 83:1804–1811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chong GG, He YC, Liu QX, Kou XQ, Qing Q (2017a) Sequential aqueous ammonia extraction and LiCl/N,N-dimethyl formamide pretreatment for enhancing enzymatic saccharification of winterbamboo shoot shell. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 182:1341–1357Google Scholar
  29. Chong GG, He YC, Liu QX, Kou XQ, Huang XJ, Di JH, Ma CL (2017b) Effective enzymatic in situ saccharification of bamboo shoot shell pretreated by dilute alkalic salts sodium hypochlorite/sodium sulfide pretreatment under the autoclave system. Bioresour Technol 241:726–734CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Chong G, Di J, Ma C, Wang D, Wang C, Wang L, Zhang P, Zhu J, He Y (2018a) Enhanced bioreduction synthesis of ethyl (R)-4-chloro-3-hydroybutanoate by alkalic salt pretreatment. Bioresour Technol 261:196–205Google Scholar
  31. Chong G, Di J, Qian J, Wang C, He Y, Huo X, Wu C, Zhang L, Zhang L, Tang Y, Ma C (2018b) Efficient pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse via dilute mixed alkali salts (K2CO3 /K2SO3) soaking for enhancing its enzymatic saccharification. Process Biochem 68:121–130Google Scholar
  32. Chong GG, Huang XJ, Di JH, Xu DZ, He YC, Pei YN, Tang YJ, Ma CL (2018c) Biodegradation of alkali lignin by a newly isolated Rhodococcus pyridinivorans CCZU-B16. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 41:501–510CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Cianchetta S, Maggio BD, Burzi PL, Galletti S (2014) Evaluation of selected white-rot fungal isolates for improving the sugar yield from wheat straw. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 173:609–623PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Clough MT, Geyer K, Hunt PA, Son S, Vagt U, Welton T (2015) Ionic liquids: not always innocent solvents for cellulose. Green Chem 17:231–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dai YZ, Si MY, Chen YH, Zhang NL, Zhou M, Liao Q, Shi DQ, Liu YN (2015) Combination of biological pretreatment with NaOH/Urea pretreatment at cold temperature to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw. Bioresour Technol 198:725–731CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Dai Y, Zhang HS, Huan B, He YC (2017) Enhancing the enzymatic saccharification of bamboo shoot shell by sequential biological pretreatment with Galactomyces sp. CCZU11-1 and deep eutectic solvent extraction. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 40:1427–1436CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. de Oliveira HF, Rinaldi R (2015) Understanding cellulose dissolution: energetics of interactions of ionic liquids and cellobiose revealed by solution microcalorimetry. ChemSusChem 8:1577CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Di J, Ma C, Qian J, Liao X, Peng B, He Y (2018) Chemo-enzymatic synthesis of furfuralcohol from chestnut shell hydrolysate by a sequential acid-catalyzed dehydration under microwave and Escherichia coli CCZU-Y10 whole-cells conversion. Bioresour Technol 262:52–58Google Scholar
  39. Dunlap CE, Chiang LC (1980) Cellulose degradation-a common link. In: Shuler ML (ed) Utilization and recycle of agricultural wastes and residues. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 19–65Google Scholar
  40. Fan LT, Gharpuray MM, Lee YH (1987) Cellulose hydrolysis. Biotechnology monographs, vol 3. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Fatih Demirbas M (2009) Biorefineries for biofuel upgrading: a critical review. Appl Energy 86:S151–S161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Foston M, Katahira R, Gjersing E, Davis MF, Ragauskas AJ (2012) Solid-state selective 13C excitation and spin diffusion NMR to resolve spatial dimensions in plant cell walls. J Agric Food Chem 60:1419–1427CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Galbe M, Zacchi G (2007) Pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials for efficient bioethanol production. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Godden B, Ball AS, Helvenstein P, Mccarthy AJ, Penninckx MJ (1992) Towards elucidation of the lignin degradation pathway in actinomycetes. J Gen Microbiol 138:2441–2448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gogate PR, Sutkar VS, Pandit AB (2011) Sonochemical reactors: important design and scale up considerations with a special emphasis on heterogeneous systems. Chem Eng J 166:1066–1082CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gong W, Liu C, Mu X, Du H, Lv D, Li B, Han S (2015) Hydrogen peroxide-assisted sodium carbonate pretreatment for the enhancement of enzymatic saccharification of corn stover. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 3:3477–3485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Grous WR, Converse AO, Grethlein HE (1986) Effect of steam explosion pretreatment on pore size and enzymatic hydrolysis of poplar. Enzyme Microb Technol 8:274–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Guerra A, Mendonça R, Ferraz A (2003) Molecular weight distribution of wood components extracted from Pinus taeda biotreated by Ceriporiopsis subvermispora. Enzym Microb Technol 33:12–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gupta R, Lee YY (2010) Investigation of biomass degradation mechanism in pretreatment of switchgrass by aqueous ammonia and sodium hydroxide. Bioresour Technol 101:8185CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Hallac BB, Ragauskas AJ (2011) Analyzing cellulose degree of polymerization and its relevancy to cellulosic ethanol. Biofuels Bioprod Biorefin 5:215–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hallac BB, Sannigrahi P, Pu Y, Ray M, Murphy RJ, Ragauskas AJ (2010) Effect of ethanol organosolv pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis of Buddleja davidii stem biomass. Ind Eng Chem Res 49:1467–1472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hamelinck CN, Hooijdonk GV, Faaij APC (2005) Ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass: techno-economic performance in short-, middle- and long-term. Biomass Bioenergy 28:384–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hammel KE, Kapich AN, Jensen KA Jr, Ryan ZC (2002) Reactive oxygen species as agents of wood decay by fungi. Enzyme Microb Technol 30:445–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. He YC, Xia DQ, Ma CL, Gong L, Gong T, Wu MX, Zhang Y, Tang YJ, Xu JH, Liu YY (2013) Enzymatic saccharification of sugarcane baggage by N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide-tolerant cellulase from a newly isolated Galactomyces sp. CCZU11-1. Bioresour Technol 135:18–22CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. He YC, Ding Y, Xue YF, Yang B, Liu F, Wang C, Zhu ZZ, Qing Q, Wu H, Zhu C, Tao ZC, Zhang DP (2015a) Enhancement of enzymatic saccharification of corn stover with sequential Fenton pretreatment and dilute NaOH extraction. Bioresour Technol 193:324–330CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. He YC, Liu F, Gong L, Zhu ZZ, Ding Y, Wang C, Xue YF, Rui H, Tao ZC, Zhang DP, Ma CL (2015b) Significantly improving enzymatic saccharification of high crystallinity index’s corn stover by combining ionic liquid [Bmim]Cl–HCl–water media with dilute NaOH pretreatment. Bioresour Technol 189:421–425CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. He YC, Liu F, Gong L, Lu T, Ding Y, Zhang DP, Qing Q, Zhang Y (2015c) Improving enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover pretreated by ethylene glycol-perchloric acid-water mixture. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 175:1306–1317CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. He YC, Liu F, Di JH, Ding Y, Tao ZC, Zhu ZZ, Wu YQ, Chen L, Wang C, Xue YF, Chong GG, Ma CL (2016a) Effective enzymatic saccharification of dilute NaOH extraction of chestnut shell pretreated by acidified aqueous ethylene glycol media. Ind Crop Prod 81:129–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. He YC, Liu F, Gong L, Di JH, Ding Y, Ma CL, Zhang DP, Tao ZC, Wang C, Yang B (2016b) Enzymatic in situ saccharification of chestnut shell with high ionic liquid-tolerant cellulases from Galactomyces sp. CCZU11-1 in a biocompatible ionic liquid-cellulase media. Bioresour Technol 201:133–139CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. He YC, Tao ZC, Di JH, Chen L, Zhang LB, Zhang DP, Chong GG, Liu F, Ding Y, Jiang CX, Ma CL (2016c) Effective asymmetric bioreduction of ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate to ethyl (R)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate by recombinant E. coli CCZU-A13 in [Bmim]PF6–hydrolyzate media. Bioresour Technol 214:414–418Google Scholar
  61. He YC, Zhang DP, Di JH, Wu YQ, Tao ZC, Liu F, Zhang ZJ, Chong GG, Ding Y, Ma CL (2016d) Effective pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse with combination pretreatment and its hydrolyzates as reaction media for the biosynthesis of ethyl (S)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate by whole cells of E. coli CCZU-K14. Bioresour Technol 211:720–726CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. He YC, Ding Y, Ma CL, Di JH, Jiang CL, Li AT (2017a) One-pot conversion of biomass-derived xylose to furfuralcohol by a chemo-enzymatic sequential acid-catalyzed dehydration and bioreduction. Green Chem 19:3844–3850CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. He YC, Li XL, Ben HX, Xue XY, Yang B (2017b) Lipid production from dilute alkali corn stover lignin by Rhodococcus strains. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 5:2302–2311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. He YC, Jiang CX, Jiang JW, Di JH, Liu F, Ding Y, Qing Q, Ma CL (2017c) One-pot chemo-enzymatic synthesis of furfuralcohol from xylose. Bioresour Technol 238:698–705CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. He YC, Jiang CX, Chong GG, Di JH, Wu YF, Wang BQ, Xue XX, Ma CL (2017d) Chemical-enzymatic conversion of corncob-derived xylose to furfuralcohol by the tandem catalysis with SO4 2−/SnO2-Kaoline and E. coli CCZU-T15 cells in toluene–water media. Bioresour Technol 245:841–849CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. He YC, Jiang CX, Jiang JW, Di JH, Liu F, Ding Y, Qing Q, Ma CL (2017e) One-pot chemo-enzymatic synthesis of furfuralcohol from xylose. Bioresour Technol 238:698–705CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Hendriks ATWM, Zeeman G (2009) Pretreatments to enhance the digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass. Bioresour Technol 100:10–18CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Hideno A, Inoue H, Tsukahara K, Fujimoto S, Minowa T, Inoue S, Endo T, Sawayama S (2009) Wet disk milling pretreatment without sulfuric acid for enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw. Bioresour Technol 100:2706–2711CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Hu Z, Wen Z (2008) Enhancing enzymatic digestibility of switchgrass by microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment. Biochem Eng J 38:369–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Idrees M, Adnan A, Qureshi FA (2013) Optimization of sulfide/sulfite pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for lactic acid production. Biomed Res Int 2013:934171CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. Jacquet N, Vanderghem C, Danthine S, Quiévy N, Blecker C, Devaux J, Paquot M (2012) Influence of steam explosion on physicochemical properties and hydrolysis rate of pure cellulose fibers. Bioresour Technol 121:221–227CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Janu KU, Sindhu R, Binod P, Kuttiraja M, Sukumaran RK, Pandey A (2011) Studies on physicochemical changes during alkali pretreatment and optimization of hydrolysis conditions to improve sugar yield from bagasse. J Sci Ind Res 70:952–958Google Scholar
  73. Jiang CX, He YC, Chong GG, Di JH, Tang YJ, Ma CL (2017) Enzymatic in situ saccharification of sugarcane bagasse pretreated with low loading of alkalic salts Na2SO3/Na3PO4 by autoclaving. J Biotechnol 259:73–82CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Jørgensen H, Kristensen JB, Felby C (2007) Enzymatic conversion of lignocellulose into fermentable sugars: challenges and opportunities. Biofuels Bioprod Biorefin 1:119–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kanbayashi T, Miyafuji H (2015) Topochemical and morphological characterization of wood cell wall treated with the ionic liquid, 1-ethylpyridinium bromide. Planta 242:509–518CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Kandhola G, Djioleu A, Carrier DJ, Kim JW (2017a) Pretreatments for enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of pinewood: a review. Bioenergy Res 10:1138–1154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kandhola G, Djioleu A, Carrier DJ, Kim J-W (2017b) Pretreatments for enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of pinewood: a review. Bioenergy Res 5:1–17Google Scholar
  78. Kapoor K, Garg N, Garg RK, Varshney L, Tyagi AK (2017) Study the effect of gamma radiation pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse on its physcio-chemical morphological and structural properties. Radiat Phys Chem 141:190–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Karmakar A, Karmakar S, Mukherjee S (2010) Properties of various plants and animals feedstocks for biodiesel production. Bioresour Technol 101:7201–7210CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Keshwani DR, Cheng JJ (2010) Microwave-based alkali pretreatment of switchgrass and coastal bermudagrass for bioethanol production. Biotechnol Prog 26:644–652CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Kim TH, Lee YY (2005) Pretreatment of corn stover by soaking in aqueous ammonia. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 124:1119–1131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Kim HJ, Chang JH, Jeong BY, Jin HL (2013) Comparison of milling modes as a pretreatment method for cellulosic biofuel production. J Clean Energy Technol 1:45–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Koo BW, Min BC, Gwak KS, Lee SM, Choi JW, Yeo H, Choi IG (2012) Structural changes in lignin during organosolv pretreatment of Liriodendron tulipifera and the effect on enzymatic hydrolysis. Biomass Bioenergy 42:24–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Koray Gulsoy S, Eroglu H (2011) Biokraft pulping of European black pine with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora. Int Biodeter Biodegr 65:644–648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Kumar AK, Sharma S (2017) Recent updates on different methods of pretreatment of lignocellulosic feedstocks: a review. Bioresour Bioprocess 4:7CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. Kumar P, Barrett DM, Delwiche MJ, Stroeve P (2009) Methods for pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for efficient hydrolysis and biofuel production. Ind Eng Chem Res 48:3713–3729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Kumar L, Chandra R, Saddler J (2011) Influence of steam pretreatment severity on post-treatments used to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated softwoods at low enzyme loadings. Biotechnol Bioeng 108:2300–2311CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Kuo CH, Lee CK (2009) Enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse by N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide pretreatment. Bioresour Technol 100:866–871CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Kyoungheon K, Hong J (2001) Supercritical CO2 pretreatment of lignocellulose enhances enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis. Bioresour Technol 77:139–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Larran A, Jozami E, Vicario L, Feldman SR, Podestá FE, Permingeat HR (2015) Evaluation of biological pretreatments to increase the efficiency of the saccharification process using Spartina argentinensis as a biomass resource. Bioresour Technol 194:320–325CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Lawoko M, Henriksson G, Gellerstedt G (2005) Structural differences between the lignin−carbohydrate complexes present in wood and in chemical pulps. Biomacromolecules 6:3467–3473CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Leonowicz A, Matuszewska A, Luterek J, Ziegenhagen D, Wojtaś-Wasilewska M, Cho NS, Hofrichter M, Rogalski J (1999) Biodegradation of lignin by white rot Fungi. Fungal Genet Biol 27:175–185CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Li Q, He YC, Xian M, Jun G, Xu X, Yang JM, Li LZ (2009) Improving enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw using ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium diethyl phosphate pretreatment. Bioresour Technol 100:3570–3575CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Li Q, Ji GS, Tang YB, Gu XD, Fei JJ, Jiang HQ (2012) Ultrasound-assisted compatible in situ hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse in cellulase-aqueous–N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide system for improved saccharification. Bioresour Technol 107:251–257CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Lin Z, Huang H, Zhang H, Zhang L, Yan L, Chen J (2010) Ball milling pretreatment of corn stover for enhancing the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 162:1872–1880CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Liu J, Takada R, Karita S, Watanabe T, Honda Y, Watanabe T (2010) Microwave-assisted pretreatment of recalcitrant softwood in aqueous glycerol. Bioresour Technol 101:9355–9360CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Liu Z, Padmanabhan S, Cheng K, Schwyter P, Pauly M, Bell AT, Prausnitz JM (2013) Aqueous-ammonia delignification of miscanthus followed by enzymatic hydrolysis to sugars. Bioresour Technol 135:23–29CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Liu H, Pang B, Zhou J, Han Y, Lu J, Li H, Wang H (2016) Comparative study of pretreated corn Stover for sugar production using cotton pulping black liquor (CPBL) instead of sodium hydroxide. Ind Crop Prod 84:97–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Lu X, Bo X, Zhang Y, Angelidaki I (2011) Microwave pretreatment of rape straw for bioethanol production: focus on energy efficiency. Bioresour Technol 102:7937CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Lucas M, Hanson SK, Wagner GL, Kimball DB, Rector KD (2012) Evidence for room temperature delignification of wood using hydrogen peroxide and manganese acetate as a catalyst. Bioresour Technol 119:174–180CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Ma K, Ruan Z (2015) Production of a lignocellulolytic enzyme system for simultaneous bio-delignification and saccharification of corn stover employing co-culture of fungi. Bioresour Technol 175:586–593CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Ma H, Liu WW, Chen X, Wu Y, Yu Z (2009) Enhanced enzymatic saccharification of rice straw by microwave pretreatment. Bioresour Technol 100:1279–1284CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Ma F, Yang N, Xu C, Yu H, Wu J, Zhang X (2010) Combination of biological pretreatment with mild acid pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production from water hyacinth. Bioresour Technol 101:9600–9604CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Mäkelä MR, Donofrio N, de Vries RP (2014) Plant biomass degradation by fungi. Fungal Genet Biol 72:2–9CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Martín C, Thomsen MH, Hauggaard-Nielsen H, Thomsen AB (2008) Wet oxidation pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of clover–ryegrass mixtures. Bioresour Technol 99:8777–8782CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. McMillan JD (1994) Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. In Enzymatic conversion of biomass for fuels production. American Chemical Society, vol 566, pp 292–324Google Scholar
  107. Mendes FM, Siqueira G, Carvalho W, Ferraz A, Milagres AM (2011) Enzymatic hydrolysis of chemithermomechanically pretreated sugarcane bagasse and samples with reduced initial lignin content. Biotechnol Prog 27:395–401CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Mendes FM, Heikkilä E, Fonseca MB, Milagres AMF, Ferraz A, Fardim P (2015) Topochemical characterization of sugar cane pretreated with alkaline sulfite. Ind Crop Prod 69:60–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Mesa L, González E, Cara C, González M, Castro E, Mussatto SI (2011) The effect of organosolv pretreatment variables on enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse. Chem Eng J 168:1157–1162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Millett MA, Baker AJ, Satter LD (1976) Physical and chemical pretreatments for enhancing cellulose saccharification. Biotechnol Bioeng Symp 6:125Google Scholar
  111. Monrroy M, Ortega I, Ramírez M, Baeza J, Freer J (2011) Structural change in wood by brown rot fungi and effect on enzymatic hydrolysis. Enzym Microb Technol 49:472–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Montalbo-Lomboy M, Johnson L, Khanal SK, Leeuwen JV, Grewell D (2010) Sonication of sugary-2 corn: a potential pretreatment to enhance sugar release. Bioresour Technol 101:351–358CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Mosier N, Wyman C, Dale B, Elander R, Lee YY, Holtzapple M, Ladisch M (2005) Features of promising technologies for pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Bioresour Technol 96:673–686CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Nakamura Y, Daidai M, Kobayashi F (2004) Ozonolysis mechanism of lignin model compounds and microbial treatment of organic acids produced. Water Sci Technol 50:167CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Neely WC (1984) Factors affecting the pretreatment of biomass with gaseous ozone. Biotechnol Bioeng 26:59–65CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Novo LP, Gurgel LVA, Marabezi K, da Silva Curvelo AA (2011) Delignification of sugarcane bagasse using glycerol-water mixtures to produce pulps for saccharification. Bioresour Technol 102:10040–10046CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Ostovareh S, Karimi K, Zamani A (2015) Efficient conversion of sweet sorghum stalks to biogas and ethanol using organosolv pretreatment. Ind Crop Prod 66:170–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Paudel SR, Banjara SP, Choi OK, Park KY, Kim YM, Lee JW (2017) Pretreatment of agricultural biomass for anaerobic digestion: current state and challenges. Bioresour Technol 245:1194–1205CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Pérez J, Muñozdorado J, De lRT, Martínez J (2002) Biodegradation and biological treatments of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin: an overview. Int Microbiol 5:53–63CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Procentese A, Johnson E, Orr V, Campanile AG, Wood JA, Marzocchella A, Rehmann F (2015) Deep eutectic solvent pretreatment and subsequent saccharification of corncob. Bioresour Technol 92:31–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Pryor SW, Karki B, Nahar N (2012) Effect of hemicellulase addition during enzymatic hydrolysis of switchgrass pretreated by soaking in aqueous ammonia. Bioresour Technol 123:620–626CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Pu Y, Kosa M, Kalluri UC, Tuskan GA, Ragauskas AJ (2011) Challenges of the utilization of wood polymers: how can they be overcome? Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 91:1525–1536CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Qing Q, Zhou LL, Guo Q, Huang MZ, He YC, Wang LQ, Zhang Y (2016) A combined sodium phosphate and sodium sulfide pretreatment for enhanced enzymatic digestibility and delignification of corn stover. Bioresour Technol 218:209–216CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Qing Q, Zhou LL, Guo Q, Gao XH, Zhang Y, He YC, Zhang Y (2017) Mild alkaline presoaking and organosolv pretreatment of corn stover and their impacts on corn stover composition, structure, and digestibility. Bioresour Technol 233:284–290CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Quesada J, Rubio M, Gómez D (1999) Ozonation of lignin rich solid fractions from corn stalks. J Wood Chem Technol 19:115–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Rabemanolontsoa H, Saka S (2016) Various pretreatments of lignocellulosics. Bioresour Technol 199:83–91CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Ragauskas AJ, Williams CK, Davison BH, Britovsek G, Cairney J, Eckert CA, Frederick WJ Jr, Hallett JP, Leak DJ, Liotta CL (2006) The path forward for biofuels and biomaterials. Science 311:484CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Ralph J, Lundquist K, Brunow G, Lu F, Kim H, Schatz PF, Marita JM, Hatfield RD, Ralph SA, Christensen JH, Boerjan W (2004) Lignins: natural polymers from oxidative coupling of 4-hydroxyphenyl- propanoids. Phytochem Rev 3:29–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Ramesh D, Muniraj IK, Thangavelu K, Karthikeyan S (2018) Chapter 2: pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks for biofuel production. IGI GlobalGoogle Scholar
  130. Rehman MSU, Kim I, Chisti Y, Han JI (2013) Use of ultrasound in the production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. Energy Educ Sci Technol 30:1391–1410Google Scholar
  131. Rosgaard L, Pedersen S, Meyer AS (2007) Comparison of different pretreatment strategies for enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat and barley straw. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 143:284–296CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Roy P, Dias G (2017) Prospects for pyrolysis technologies in the bioenergy sector: a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 77:59–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Ryu S-H, Cho M-K, Kim M, Jung S-M, Seo J-H (2013) Enhanced lignin biodegradation by a laccase-overexpressed white-rot fungus Polyporus brumalis in the pretreatment of wood chips. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 171:1525–1534CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Saha BC, Cotta MA (2007) Enzymatic saccharification and fermentation of alkaline peroxide pretreated rice hulls to ethanol. Enzyme Microb Technol 41:528–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Saini JK, Saini R, Tewari L (2015) Lignocellulosic agriculture wastes as biomass feedstocks for second-generation bioethanol production: concepts and recent developments. 3 Biotech 5:337–353CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Salvachúa D, Karp EM, Nimlos CT, Vardon DR, Beckham GT (2015) Towards lignin consolidated bioprocessing: simultaneous lignin depolymerization and product generation by bacteria. Green Chem 17:4951–4967CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Sanchez C (2009) Lignocellulosic residues: biodegradation and bioconversion by fungi. Biotechnol Adv 27:185–194CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Saratale GD, Chien LJ, Chang JS (2010) Enzymatic treatment of lignocellulosic wastes for anaerobic digestion and bioenergy production. Environ Anaerob Technol Appl New Dev:279–308Google Scholar
  139. Schilling JS, Tewalt JP, Duncan SM (2009) Synergy between pretreatment lignocellulose modifications and saccharification efficiency in two brown rot fungal systems. Appl Microb Biotechnol 84:465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Shi Y, Huang C, Rocha KC, El-Din MG, Liu Y (2015) Treatment of oil sands process-affected water using moving bed biofilm reactors: with and without ozone pretreatment. Bioresour Technol 192:219–227CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Silva ASD, Inoue H, Endo T, Yano S, Bon EPS (2010) Milling pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse and straw for enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation. Bioresour Technol 101:7402–7409CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Silverstein RA, Chen Y, Sharma-Shivappa RR, Boyette MD, Osborne J (2007) A comparison of chemical pretreatment methods for improving saccharification of cotton stalks. Bioresour Technol 98:3000–3011CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Sindu R, Binod P, Pandey A (2016) Biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass – an overview. Bioresour Technol 199:76–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Singh R, Krishna BB, Kumar J, Bhaskar T (2016) Opportunities for utilization of non-conventional energy sources for biomass pretreatment. Bioresour Technol 199:398–407CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Srinivasan N, Ju LK (2010) Pretreatment of guayule biomass using supercritical carbon dioxide-based method. Bioresour Technol 101:9785–9791CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Sun Y, Cheng J (2002) Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials for ethanol production: a review. Bioresour Technol 83:1–11CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Sun F, Wang L, Hong J, Ren J, Du F, Hu J, Zhang Z, Zhou B (2015) The impact of glycerol organosolv pretreatment on the chemistry and enzymatic hydrolyzability of wheat straw. Bioresour Technol 187:354–361CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Szijártó N, Kádár Z, Varga E, Thomsen AB, Costaferreira M, Réczey K (2009) Pretreatment of reed by wet oxidation and subsequent utilization of the pretreated fibers for ethanol production. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 155:83–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Taherzadeh MJ, Keikhosro K (2008) Pretreatment of lignocellulosic wastes to improve ethanol and biogas production: a review. Int J Mol Sci 9:1621CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  150. Tang A, Zhang H, Gang C, Xie G, Liang W (2005) Influence of ultrasound treatment on accessibility and regioselective oxidation reactivity of cellulose. Ultrason Sonochem 12:467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Teramoto Y, Lee SH, Endo T (2008) Pretreatment of woody and herbaceous biomass for enzymatic saccharification using sulfuric acid-free ethanol cooking. Bioresour Technol 99:8856–8863CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Tye YY, Lee KT, Abdullah WNW, Leh CP (2016) The world availability of nonwood lignocellulosic biomass for the production of cellulosic ethanol and potential pretreatments for the enhancement of enzymatic saccharification. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 60:155–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Varga E, Schmidt AS, Réczey K, Thomsen AB (2003) Pretreatment of corn stover using wet oxidation to enhance enzymatic digestibility. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 104:37–50CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Velmurugan R, Muthukumar K (2011) Utilization of sugarcane bagasse for bioethanol production: sono-assisted acid hydrolysis approach. Bioresour Technol 102:7119–7123CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Veluchamy C, Kalamdhad AS (2017) Influence of pretreatment techniques on anaerobic digestion of pulp and paper mill sludge: a review. Bioresour Technol 245:1206–1219CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Vidal PF, Molinier J (1988) Ozonolysis of lignin—improvement of in vitro digestibility of poplar sawdust. Biomass 16:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Wright JD (1988) Ethanol from biomass by enzymatic hydrolysis. Chem Eng Prog 84:8Google Scholar
  158. Wyman CE, Dale BE, Elander RT, Holtzapple M, Ladisch MR, Lee YY (2005a) Comparative sugar recovery data from laboratory scale application of leading pretreatment technologies to corn Stover. Bioresour Technol 96:2026–2032CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Wyman CE, Dale BE, Elander RT, Holtzapple M, Ladisch MR, Lee YY (2005b) Coordinated development of leading biomass pretreatment technologies. Bioresour Technol 96:1959–1966CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Xu ZY, Huang F (2014) Pretreatment methods for bioethanol production. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 174:43–62CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Xu JX, Xiong P, He BF (2016a) Advances in improving the performance of cellulase in ionic liquids for lignocellulose biorefinery. Bioresour Technol 200:961–970CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Xu GC, Ding JC, Han RZ, Dong JJ, Ni Y (2016b) Enhancing cellulose accessibility of corn stover by deep eutectic solvent pretreatment for butanol fermentation. Bioresour Technol 203:364–369CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Xu H, Li B, Mu X (2016c) Review of alkali-based pretreatment to enhance enzymatic saccharification for lignocellulosic biomass conversion. Ind Eng Chem Res 55:8691–8705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Yachmenev V, Condon B, Klasson T, Lambert A (2009) Acceleration of the enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover and sugar cane bagasse celluloses by low intensity uniform ultrasound. J Biobased Mater Bioenergy 3:25–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Yang B, Wyman CE (2004) Effect of xylan and lignin removal by batch and flowthrough pretreatment on the enzymatic digestibility of corn stover cellulose. Biotechnol Bioeng 86:88–98CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Yang CP, Shen ZQ, Yu GC et al (2008) Effect and aftereffect of gamma radiation pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw. Bioresour Technol 99:6240–6245CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Yang L, Cao J, Mao J, Jin Y (2013) Sodium carbonate–sodium sulfite pretreatment for improving the enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw. Ind Crop Prod 43:711–717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Ye S, Cheng J (2002) Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials for ethanol production: a review. ChemInform 83:1–11Google Scholar
  169. Yoo CG, Nghiem NP, Hicks KB, Kim TH (2011) Pretreatment of corn Stover using low-moisture anhydrous ammonia (LMAA) process. Bioresour Technol 102:10028–10034CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Yu J, Zhang JB, He J, Liu ZD, Yu ZN (2009) Combinations of mild physical or chemical pretreatment with biological pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis of rice hull. Bioresour Technol 100:903–908CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Zakaria MR, Fujimoto S, Hirata S, Hassan MA (2014) Ball milling pretreatment of oil palm biomass for enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 173:1778–1789CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Zhang T, Zhou YJ, Liu DL, Petrus L (2007) Qualitative analysis of products formed during the acid catalyzed liquefaction of bagasse in ethylene glycol. Bioresour Technol 98:1454–1459CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Zhang J, Zhuang J, Lin L, Liu S, Zhang Z (2012) Conversion of D-xylose into furfural with mesoporous molecular sieve MCM-41 as catalyst and butanol as the extraction phase. Biomass Bioenergy 39:73–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Zhang DS, Yang Q, Zhu JY, Pan XJ (2013) Sulfite (SPORL) pretreatment of switchgrass for enzymatic saccharification. Bioresour Technol 129:127–134CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Zhang WC, Xia SQ, Ma PS (2016) Facile pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass using deep eutectic solvents. Bioresour Technol 219:1–5CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Zhao X, Cheng K, Liu D (2009a) Organosolv pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for enzymatic hydrolysis. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 82:815CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Zhao H, Jones CL, Baker GA, Xia S, Olubajo O, Person VN (2009b) Regenerating cellulose from ionic liquids for an accelerated enzymatic hydrolysis. J Biotechnol 139:47–54CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Zheng Y, Lin HM, Wen J, Cao N, Yu X, Tsao GT (1995) Supercritical carbon dioxide explosion as a pretreatment for cellulose hydrolysis. Biotechnol Lett 17:845–850CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Zhu JY, Pan XJ, Wang GS, Gleisner R (2009) Sulfite pretreatment (SPORL) for robust enzymatic saccharification of spruce and red pine. Bioresour Technol 100:2411–2418CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yu-Cai He
    • 1
    • 2
  • Cui-Luan Ma
    • 1
    • 2
  • Bin Yang
    • 3
  1. 1.Platform of Biofuels and Biobased Products, College of Pharmaceutical Engineering and Life ScienceChangzhou UniversityChangzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Green Transformation of Bio-resources, Hubei Key Laboratory of Industrial Biotechnology, College of Life SciencesHubei UniversityWuhanPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Bioproducts, Sciences and Engineering Laboratory and Department of Biological Systems EngineeringWashington State UniversityRichlandUSA

Personalised recommendations