Energy Internet and We-Energy pp 231-263 | Cite as

# Energy Flow Calculation of Energy Internet

## Abstract

In this chapter, an integrated energy network based on the Newton-Raphson method technique is developed to solve the energy flow problem. Referring to initial guess sensitivity issues of Newton method, a convergence theorem of Newton power flow is presented to improve the efficiency of calculation. Meanwhile, the proposed maximum iterations estimation theorem can ensure the rate of convergence. Proposed two theorems can be used to determine the convergence before calculation and directly select optimal initial guess from the feasible region. A case study is utilized to validate correctness and effectiveness of the proposed theorem. Furthermore, to solve the problem of low computing speed and high requirements of computing equipment in large-scale integrated energy networks, a distributed parallel computing method suitable for integrated energy networks is applied. By splitting the coupling nodes, the whole network is decomposed into many subnetworks. At the same time, multiple processors are used in parallel computing to improve the computation speed of energy flow and reduce the demand for a single processor.

## References

- 1.J.D. Glover, M.S. Sarma, T. Overbye,
*Power System Analysis & Design*(SI version, Cengage Learn, 2012)Google Scholar - 2.Q. Li, S. An, T. W. Gedra, Solving natural gas loadflow problems using electric loadflow techniques, in
*Proceedings of North American Power Symposium*(2003)Google Scholar - 3.M. Pirouti, Modelling and analysis of a district heating network, Ph.D. dissertation, School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Cardiff, U.K. (2013)Google Scholar
- 4.B. Bakhouya, D. De Wolf,
*Solving gas transmission problems by taking compressors into account*(Univ, Littoral Opal Coast, Dunkerque, France, 2008)Google Scholar - 5.W.H. Press, S.A. Teukolsky, W.T. Vetterling, B.P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes 3rd Edition: The Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2007)Google Scholar
- 6.M. Qadrdan, M. Abeysekera, M. Chaudry et al., Role of power-to-gas in an integrated gas and electricity system in Great Britain[J]. Int. J. Hydrog. Energy
**40**(17), 5763–5775 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 7.Y.F. Su, H.Y. Zhou, A geometric result for approximating fixed points of nonlinear mappings by iteration sequence[J]. Acta Mathematica Sinica.
**49**(6), 1321–1326 (2006)MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar - 8.A. Shabanpour-Haghighi, A.R. Seifi, An integrated steady-state operation assessment of electrical, natural gas, and district heating networks[J]. IEEE Trans. Power Syst.
**31**(5), 3636–3647 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 9.D. De Wolf, Y. Smeers, The gas transmission problem solved by an extension of the simplex algorithm. Manag. Sci.
**46**(11), 1454–1465 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 10.The standard IEEE 14-bus test system. http://www.ee.washington.edu/research/pstca/