Energy Internet and We-Energy pp 201-229 | Cite as

# The Model and Energy Measurement of Energy Hub

## Abstract

This chapter proposes a new method to evaluate integrated energy systems which take full consideration of the utilization effect of renewable energy. Exergy analysis of multiple energy system is introduced from the perspective of quality of energy. A new power flow expression of energy hub contain storage is given in order to overcome the disadvantage of traditional power flow expression. This chapter also presents a novel droop control method of energy hubs which contain thermal and electric droop control method in a multiple energy system. The proposed energy hub droop control method can proportional allocate different energy hubs thermal and electric outputs according to the corresponding energy maximum output power of energy hubs to allow independent operation of the energy hubs and ensure the stability of the multiple energy system. The three-dimensional diagrams of energy hub droop control method is presented to integrally represent the relationship between systems parameters and the inputs of energy hub meanwhile solely represent the relationship between systems parameters and each input of energy hub that using proposed droop control method. Numerical simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed droop control method based on energy hub.

## References

- 1.Martin Geidl, G. Andersson, Optimal power Flow of multiple energy carriers. IEEE Trans. Power Syst.
**22**(1), 145–155 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 2.Ralph Evins et al., New formulations of the ‘energy hub’ model to address operational constraints. Energy
**73**(73), 387–398 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 3.Mohammad Hossein Barmayoon et al., Energy storage in renewable-based residential energy hubs. IET Gener. Transm. Distrib.
**10**(13), 3127–3134 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 4.Iman Gerami Moghaddam, M. Saniei, E. Mashhour, A comprehensive model for self-scheduling an energy hub to supply cooling, heating and electrical demands of a building. Energy
**94**, 157–170 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 5.K. Orehounig, R. Evins, V. Dorer, Integration of decentralized energy systems in neighbourhoods using the energy hub approach. Appl. Energy
**154**, 277–289 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 6.Hongming Yang et al., Optimal operation of DES/CCHP based regional multi-energy prosumer with demand response. Appl. Energy
**167**, 353–365 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 7.Farhad Kamyab, S. Bahrami, Efficient operation of energy hubs in time-of-use and dynamic pricing electricity markets. Energy
**106**(1), 343–355 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 8.Aras Sheikhi et al., Integrated demand side management game in smart energy hubs. IEEE Trans. Smart Grid
**6**(2), 675–683 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 9.Shahab Bahrami, A. Sheikhi, From demand response in smart grid toward integrated demand response in smart energy hub. IEEE Trans. Smart Grid
**7**(2), 650–658 (2016)Google Scholar - 10.Aras Sheikhi, S. Bahrami, A.M. Ranjbar, An autonomous demand response program for electricity and natural gas networks in smart energy hubs. Energy
**89**, 490–499 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 11.Arsalan Najafi et al., Medium-term energy hub management subject to electricity price and wind uncertainty. Appl. Energy
**168**, 418–433 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 12.Samaneh Pazouki, M.R. Haghifam, Optimal planning and scheduling of energy hub in presence of wind, storage and demand response under uncertainty. Int. J. Electr. Power Energy Syst.
**80**, 219–239 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 13.Samaneh Pazouki, M.R. Haghifam, A. Moser, Uncertainty modeling in optimal operation of energy hub in presence of wind, storage and demand response. Int. J. Electr. Power Energy Syst.
**61**, 335–345 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 14.A. Vaccaro, C. Pisani, A.F. Zobaa, Affine arithmetic-based methodology for energy hub operation-scheduling in the presence of data uncertainty. Gener. Transm. Distrib. Iet
**9**(13), 1544–1552 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 15.A. Najafi, et al. A stochastic bilevel model for the energy hub manager problem. IEEE Trans. Smart Grid PP(99):1--1 (2016)Google Scholar
- 16.Azadeh Maroufmashat et al., Modeling and optimization of a network of energy hubs to improve economic and emission considerations. Energy
**93**, 2546–2558 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 17.Xiaping Zhang et al., Optimal expansion planning of energy hub with multiple energy infrastructures. IEEE Trans. Smart Grid
**6**(5), 2302–2311 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 18.M. Salimi et al., Optimal planning of energy hubs in interconnected energy systems: a case study for natural gas and electricity. Generation Transm. Distrib. Iet
**9**(8), 695–707 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 19.Amin Shabanpour-Haghighi, A.R. Seifi, Energy flow optimization in multicarrier systems. IEEE Trans. Ind. Inf.
**11**(5), 1067–1077 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 20.Boran Morvaj, R. Evins, J. Carmeliet, Optimising urban energy systems: Simultaneous system sizing, operation and district heating network layout. Energy
**116**, 619–636 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 21.A. Tuladhar, H. Jin, T. Unger, K. Mauch, Parallel operation of single phase inverter modules with no control interconnections, in
*Proceedings of IEEE-APEC’97 Conference*, 23–27, vol. 1 (1997), pp. 94–100Google Scholar - 22.M.N. Marwali, J.-W. Jung, A. Keyhani, Stability analysis of load sharing control for distributed generation systems. IEEE Trans. Energy Convers.
**22**(3), 737–745 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 23.J.M. Guerrero, J. Matas, L. García de Vicuña, M. Castilla, J. Miret, Wireless-control strategy for parallel operation of distributed-generation inverters. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron.
**53**(5), 1461–1470 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 24.J. He, Y.W. Li, Analysis, design, and implementation of virtual impedance for power electronics interfaced distributed generation. IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl.
**47**(6), 2525–2538 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 25.Q.-C. Zhong, Robust droop controller for accurate proportional load sharing among inverters operated in parallel. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron.
**60**(4), 1281–1290 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 26.Y. Shi et al., The parallel multi-inverter system based on the voltage-type droop control method. IEEE J. Emerg. Sel. Topics Power Electron. 4.4(2016):1332–1341CrossRefGoogle Scholar