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The Potential Roles and Advantages of Single Cell Sequencing in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Hematological Malignancies

  • Mingyue Shi
  • Xiaoyan Dong
  • Lei Huo
  • Xiaobin Wei
  • Fang Wang
  • Kai SunEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1068)

Abstract

Hematological malignancies (HM) are a heterogeneous group of life-threatening hematological diseases. The heterogeneity and clonal evolution of HM subpopulations are the main obstacles for precise diagnoses, risk stratification, and even targeted therapies. Standard bulk-sample genomic examinations average total mutations from multiple subpopulations and conceal the clonal diversity that may play a significant role in HM progression. Therefore, the development of novel methods that detect intra-tumor heterogeneity is critical for the discovery of novel potential therapeutic targets. The recently developed single cell sequencing (SCS) technologies can analyse genetic polymorphisms at a single cell level. SCS requires the precise isolation of single cells and amplification of their genetic material. It allows the analysis of genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic information in single cancer cells. SCS may also be able to monitor minimal residual disease (MRD) of HM by sequencing circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from peripheral blood. Functional heterogeneity and clonal evolution exist in acute leukemia, multiple myeloma (MM) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) subpopulations and have prognostic value. In this thesis, we provide an overview of SCS technologies in HM and discuss the heterogeneous genetic variation and clonal structure among subpopulations of HM. Furthermore, we aimed to shed light on the clinical applications of SCS technologies, including the development of new targeted therapies for drug-resistant or recurrent HM.

Keywords

Hematological malignancies Single cell sequencing Heterogeneity Clonal evolution Precise therapy 

Abbreviations

ALL

acute lymphoblastic leukemia

AML

acute myeloid leukemia

CML

chronic myeloid leukemia

CTCs

circulating tumor cells

HM

hematological malignancies

HSCs

hematopoietic stem cells

LSCs

leukemic stem cells

MM

multiple myeloma

MPN

myeloproliferative neoplasms

MRD

minimal residual disease

RNA-Seq

RNA sequencing

SCS

single cell sequencing

TKI

tyrosine kinase inhibition

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was partially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81273259,No. 81471589), the Health Bureau of Henan Province, P.R. China (No. 201201005) and the Foundation and Frontier Research Grant from the Henan Provincial Science and Technology Bureau, P.R. China (No.142300410078).

Conflicts of Interest

The authors disclose that they have no relevant conflicts of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mingyue Shi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Xiaoyan Dong
    • 1
  • Lei Huo
    • 1
  • Xiaobin Wei
    • 1
  • Fang Wang
    • 1
  • Kai Sun
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of HematologyInstitute of Hematology, Henan Provincial People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou University People’s HospitalZhengzhouChina
  2. 2.Zhengzhou University the Academy of Medical Sciences, Zhengzhou UniversityZhengzhouChina

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