Advertisement

Brachytherapy pp 159-180 | Cite as

A Review of Permanent Prostate Brachytherapy as Practiced in Japan

  • Atsunori Yorozu
  • Shiro Saito
Chapter

Abstract

Iodine-125 permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB) was introduced in Japan in 2003. The Japanese guidelines of radiation safety control for PPB regulate radiation safety parameters including the qualifications of the institutions and doctors to perform this treatment. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of PPB for localized prostate cancer, the nationwide Japanese Prostate Cancer Outcome Study of Permanent Iodine-125 Seed Implantation (J-POPS) was conducted between 2005 and 2010. The J-POPS study is the largest multi-institutional prospective cohort study to achieve state-of-the-art clinical outcomes for localized prostate cancer treated using PPB. This study, along with regular training courses and joint radiation oncology-urology conferences, has promoted and achieves quality PPB. Every year, 3000 patients are treated with this modality in Japan. In this article, the early results of J-POPS and many clinical investigations are reviewed to provide the current status of PPB as practiced in Japan. This review covers planning techniques, postimplant dosimetry, toxicity, clinical outcomes, and special issues of radiation safety control.

Keywords

Prostate cancer Permanent brachytherapy Low-dose-rate Iodine-125 Safety control 

References

  1. 1.
    Guideline for safety control of permanent implantation brachytherapy of prostate cancer. Editorial supervision by the Japanese Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology/Japanese Urological Association/Japan Radiological Society; 2003.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Saito S, Nagata H, Kosugi M, Toya K, Yorozu A. Brachytherapy with permanent seed implantation. Int J Clin Oncol. 2007;12(6):395–407. Epub 2007 Dec 21. Review. PubMed PMID: 18071858CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Radiotherapy planning guidelines. Editorial supervision by the Japanese Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology; 2012.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Nag S, Beyer D, Friedland J, Grimm P, Nath R. American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) recommendations for transperineal permanent brachytherapy of prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1999;44(4):789–99. Review. PubMed PMID: 10386635CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nag S, Bice W, DeWyngaert K, Prestidge B, Stock R, Yu Y. The American Brachytherapy Society recommendations for permanent prostate brachytherapy postimplant dosimetric analysis. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2000;46(1):221–30. Review. PubMed PMID: 10656396CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    ICRP. Radiation safety aspects of brachytherapy for prostate cancer using permanently implanted sources. A report of ICRP Publication 98. Ann ICRP. 2005;35(iii–ivi):3e50.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Manual for actions in early death cases occurring within one year after permanent implantation brachytherapy of prostate cancer. Editorial supervision by the Japanese Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology/Japanese Urological Association/Japan Radiological Society/Japanese Society of Pathology/Japan Radioisotope Association; 2008.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Saito S, Ito K, Yorozu A, Aoki M, Koga H, Satoh T, Ohashi T, Shigematsu N, Maruo S, Kikuchi T, Kojima S, Dokiya T, Fukushima M, Yamanaka H. Nationwide Japanese Prostate Cancer Outcome Study of permanent iodine-125 seed implantation (J-POPS). Int J Clin Oncol. 2015;20(2):375–85.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10147-014-0704-4. Epub 2014 May 21. PubMed PMID: 24840041CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Stock RG, Stone NN, Cesaretti JA, Rosenstein BS. Biologically effective dose values for prostate brachytherapy: effects on PSA failure and posttreatment biopsy results. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2006;64(2):527–33. Epub 2005 Oct 19. PubMed PMID: 16242258CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nag S, Ciezki JP, Cormack R, Doggett S, DeWyngaert K, Edmundson GK, Stock RG, Stone NN, Yu Y, Zelefsky MJ, Clinical Research Committee, American Brachytherapy Society. Intraoperative planning and evaluation of permanent prostate brachytherapy: report of the American Brachytherapy Society. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2001;51(5):1422–30. PubMed PMID: 11728703CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Davis BJ, Horwitz EM, Lee WR, Crook JM, Stock RG, Merrick GS, Butler WM, Grimm PD, Stone NN, Potters L, Zietman AL, Zelefsky MJ, American Brachytherapy Society. American Brachytherapy Society consensus guidelines for transrectal ultrasound-guided permanent prostate brachytherapy. Brachytherapy. 2012;11(1):6–19.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brachy.2011.07.005. PubMed PMID: 22265434CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yoshida K, Ohashi T, Yorozu A, Toya K, Nishiyama T, Saito S, Hanada T, Shiraishi Y, Shigematsu N. Comparison of preplanning and intraoperative planning for I-125 prostate brachytherapy. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2013;43(4):383–9.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jjco/hys240. Epub 2013 Jan 11. PubMed PMID: 23315386CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Katayama N, Yorozu A, Maruo S, Kojima S, Ohashi T, Tanaka N, Kikuchi T, Higashide S, Saito S, Dokiya T, Fukushima M, Yamanaka H. Predictive factors of rectal toxicity after permanent iodine-125 seed implantation: prospective cohort study in 2339 patients. Brachytherapy. 2016;15(6):736–45.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brachy.2016.09.001. Epub 2016 Oct 6. PubMed PMID: 27720311CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ishiyama H, Satoh T, Kitano M, Kotani S, Uemae M, Baba S, Hayakawa K. Interactive-plan technique conquers the disadvantages of volume-reducing hormone therapy in 125I permanent implantation for localized prostate cancer. Int J Clin Oncol. 2009;14(1):53–5.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10147-008-0799-6. Epub 2009 Feb 20. PubMed PMID: 19225925CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nakano M, Yorozu A, Saito S, Sugawara A, Maruo S, Kojima S, Kikuchi T, Fukushima M, Dokiya T, Yamanaka H. Seed migration after transperineal interstitial prostate brachytherapy by using loose seeds: Japanese prostate cancer outcome study of permanent iodine-125 seed implantation (J-POPS) multi-institutional cohort study. Radiat Oncol. 2015;10:228.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13014-015-0532-3. PubMed PMID: 26577301; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4650265CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nakano M, Uno H, Gotoh T, Kubota Y, Ishihara S, Deguchi T, Hayashi S, Matsuo M, Tanaka O, Hoshi H. Migration of prostate brachytherapy seeds to the vertebral venous plexus. Brachytherapy. 2006;5(2):127–30. PubMed PMID: 16644468CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sugawara A, Nakashima J, Kunieda E, Nagata H, Mizuno R, Seki S, Shiraishi Y, Kouta R, Oya M, Shigematsu N. Prostate brachytherapy seed migration to a left varicocele. Brachytherapy. 2012;11(6):502–6.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brachy.2011.11.003. Epub 2011 Dec 20. PubMed PMID: 22192493CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ishiyama H, Satoh T, Kawakami S, Tsumura H, Komori S, Tabata K, Sekiguchi A, Takahashi R, Soda I, Takenaka K, Iwamura M, Hayakawa K. A prospective quasi-randomized comparison of intraoperatively built custom-linked seeds versus loose seeds for prostate brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2014;90(1):134–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2014.05.009. Epub 2014 Jun 28. PubMed PMID: 24986744CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ishiyama H, Satoh T, Yorozu A, Saito S, Kataoka M, Hashine K, Nakamura R, Tanji S, Masui K, Okihara K, Ohashi T, Momma T, Aoki M, Miki K, Kato M, Morita M, Katayama N, Nasu Y, Kawanaka T, Fukumori T, Ito F, Shiroki R, Baba Y, Inadome A, Yoshioka Y, Takayama H, Hayakawa K. Multi-institutional retrospective analysis of learning curves on dosimetry and operation time before and after introduction of intraoperatively built custom-linked seeds in prostate brachytherapy. J Radiat Res. 2016;57(1):68–74.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jrr/rrv065. Epub 2015 Oct 22. PubMed PMID: 26494116; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4708919CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Katayama N, Takemoto M, Takamoto A, Ihara H, Katsui K, Ebara S, Nasu Y, Kanazawa S. Comparison of implant quality between intraoperatively built custom-linked seeds and loose seeds in permanent prostate brachytherapy using sector analysis. J Radiat Res. 2016;57(4):393–9.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jrr/rrw018. Epub 2016 Mar 13. PubMed PMID: 26976125; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4973643CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ohashi T, Yorozu A, Toya K, Saito S, Momma T, Nagata H, Kosugi M, Shigematsu N, Kubo A. Comparison of intraoperative ultrasound with postimplant computed tomography—dosimetric values at Day 1 and Day 30 after prostate brachytherapy. Brachytherapy. 2007;6(4):246–53. Epub 2007 Oct 23. PubMed PMID: 17959425CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ohashi T, Momma T, Yamashita S, Nagatsuma K, Kanai K, Kitagawa K, Takahashi S, Hanada T, Yorozu A, Shigematsu N. Impact of MRI-based postimplant dosimetric assessment in prostate brachytherapy using contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images. Brachytherapy. 2012;11(6):468–75.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brachy.2011.12.010. Epub 2012 Feb 11. PubMed PMID: 22330102CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Katayama N, Takemoto M, Yoshio K, Katsui K, Uesugi T, Nasu Y, Matsushita T, Kaji M, Kumon H, Kanazawa S. T2*-weighted image/T2-weighted image fusion in postimplant dosimetry of prostate brachytherapy. J Radiat Res. 2011;52(5):680–4. Epub 2011 Aug 20. PubMed PMID: 21857148CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Stone NN, Potters L, Davis BJ, Ciezki JP, Zelefsky MJ, Roach M, Fearn PA, Kattan MW, Stock RG. Customized dose prescription for permanent prostate brachytherapy: insights from a multicenter analysis of dosimetry outcomes. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2007;69(5):1472–7. Epub 2007 Aug 6. PubMed PMID:17689026CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Morris WJ, Keyes M, Palma D, McKenzie M, Spadinger I, Agranovich A, Pickles T, Liu M, Kwan W, Wu J, Lapointe V, Berthelet E, Pai H, Harrison R, Kwa W, Bucci J, Racz V, Woods R. Evaluation of dosimetric parameters and disease response after 125 iodine transperineal brachytherapy for low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2009;73(5):1432–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2008.07.042. Epub 2008 Nov 25. PubMed PMID: 19036530CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ohashi T, Yorozu A, Saito S, Momma T, Toya K, Nishiyama T, Yamashita S, Shiraishi Y, Shigematsu N. Outcomes following iodine-125 prostate brachytherapy with or without neoadjuvant androgen deprivation. Radiother Oncol. 2013;109(2):241–5.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2013.09.022. Epub 2013 Oct 31. PubMed PMID: 24183866CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Yorozu A, Kuroiwa N, Takahashi A, Toya K, Saito S, Nishiyama T, Yagi Y, Tanaka T, Shiraishi Y, Ohashi T. Permanent prostate brachytherapy with or without supplemental external beam radiotherapy as practiced in Japan: outcomes of 1300 patients. Brachytherapy. 2015;14(2):111–7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brachy.2014.06.008. Epub 2014 Aug 7. PubMed PMID: 25127123CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Shiraishi Y, Yorozu A, Ohashi T, Toya K, Saito S, Nishiyama T, Yagi Y, Shigematsu N. A dose-response analysis of biochemical control outcomes after (125)I monotherapy for patients with favorable-risk prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2014;90(5):1069–75.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2014.08.340. PubMed PMID: 25539368CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Tanaka N, Asakawa I, Katayama E, Hirayama A, Hasegawa M, Konishi N, Fujimoto K. The biochemical recurrence-free rate in patients who underwent prostate low-dose-rate brachytherapy, using two different definitions. Radiat Oncol. 2014;9:107.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-717X-9-107. PubMed PMID: 24885896; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4029825CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ishiyama H, Nakano M, Toya K, et al. Variability of treatment planning of seed implantation: a Japanese multicenter simulation study. Brachytherapy. 2017;pii:S1538–4721(17)30360–4.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brachy.2017.05.007. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 28623085CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Okamoto K, Wada A, Kohno N. High biologically effective dose radiation therapy using brachytherapy in combination with external beam radiotherapy for high-risk prostate cancer. J Contemp Brachytherapy. 2017;9(1):1–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ohashi T, Yorozu A, Saito S, Tanaka N, Katayama N, Kojima S, Maruo S, Kikuchi T, Dokiya T, Fukushima M, Yamanaka H. Urinary and rectal toxicity profiles after permanent iodine-125 implant brachytherapy in Japanese men: nationwide J-POPS multi-institutional prospective cohort study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2015;93(1):141–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2015.05.014. Epub 2015 May 15. PubMed PMID: 26279031CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Tanaka N, Fujimoto K, Hirao Y, Asakawa I, Hasegawa M, Konishi N. Variations in international prostate symptom scores, uroflowmetric parameters, and prostate volume after (125)I permanent brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer. Urology. 2009;74(2):407–11.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2008.12.062. Epub 2009 Apr 18. PubMed PMID: 19376570CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Tanaka N, Asakawa I, Hasegawa M, Fujimoto K. Urethral toxicity after LDR brachytherapy: experience in Japan. Brachytherapy. 2015;14(2):131–5.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brachy.2014.09.009. Epub 2014 Nov 6. Review. PubMed PMID: 25455383CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Oyama N, Aoki Y, Ito H, Miwa Y, Akino H, Sato Y, Shioura H, Kimura H, Yokoyama O. Alpha 1-adrenoceptor blocker may improve not only voiding but also storage lower urinary tract symptoms caused by (125) I brachytherapy for prostate cancer. ISRN Urol. 2014;2014:140654.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/140654. eCollection 2014. PubMed PMID: 25006516; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4004040CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Tanaka N, Torimoto K, Asakawa I, Miyake M, Anai S, Hirayama A, Hasegawa M, Konishi N, Fujimoto K. Use of alpha-1 adrenoceptor antagonists in patients who underwent low-dose-rate brachytherapy for prostate cancer – a randomized controlled trial of silodosin versus naftopidil. Radiat Oncol. 2014;9:302.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13014-014-0302-7. PubMed PMID: 25544509; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4300048CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Cesaretti JA, Stone NN, Stock RG. Urinary symptom flare following I-125 prostate brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2003;56(4):1085–92. PubMed PMID: 12829146CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Keyes M, Miller S, Moravan V, Pickles T, McKenzie M, Pai H, Liu M, Kwan W, Agranovich A, Spadinger I, Lapointe V, Halperin R, Morris WJ. Predictive factors for acute and late urinary toxicity after permanent prostate brachytherapy: long-term outcome in 712 consecutive patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2009;73(4):1023–32.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2008.05.022. Epub 2008 Dec 26. PubMed PMID: 19111402CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sakayori M, Ohashi T, Momma T, Kaneda T, Nishimura S, Sutani S, Yamashita S, Shigematsu N. Quantitative analysis of genitourinary toxicity after iodine-125 brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer: followup of the International Prostate Symptom Score and Overactive Bladder Symptom Score. Brachytherapy. 2017;16(4):806–14.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brachy.2017.04.241. Epub 2017 May 25. PubMed PMID: 28552494CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Eriguchi T, Yorozu A, Kuroiwa N, Yagi Y, Nishiyama T, Saito S, Toya K, Hanada T, Shiraishi Y, Ohashi T, Shigematsu N. Predictive factors for urinary toxicity after iodine-125 prostate brachytherapy with or without supplemental external beam radiotherapy. Brachytherapy. 2016;15(3):288–95.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brachy.2015.12.011. Epub 2016 Feb 28. PubMed PMID: 26924022CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Miyake M, Tanaka N, Asakawa I, Hori S, Morizawa Y, Tatsumi Y, Nakai Y, Inoue T, Anai S, Torimoto K, Aoki K, Hasegawa M, Fujii T, Konishi N, Fujimoto K. Assessment of lower urinary symptom flare with overactive bladder symptom score and International Prostate Symptom Score in patients treated with iodine-125 implant brachytherapy: long-term follow-up experience at a single institute. BMC Urol. 2017;17(1):62.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12894-017-0251-1. PubMed PMID: 28806948; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5556596CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Nakamura R, Kikuchi K, Tanji S, Yabuuchi T, Uwano I, Yamaguchi S, Ariga H, Fujioka T. Narrow safety range of intraoperative rectal irradiation exposure volume for avoiding bleeding after seed implant brachytherapy. Radiat Oncol. 2012;7:15.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-717X-7-15. PubMed PMID: 22293400; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3293044CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Shiraishi Y, Yorozu A, Ohashi T, Toya K, Seki S, Yoshida K, Kaneda T, Saito S, Nishiyama T, Hanada T, Shigematsu N. Dose constraint for minimizing grade 2 rectal bleeding following brachytherapy combined with external beam radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer: rectal dose-volume histogram analysis of 457 patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011;81(3):e127–33.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2011.01.012. Epub 2011 Mar 11. PubMed PMID: 21398047CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Nishimura S, Yorozu A, Ohashi T, Sakayori M, Yagi Y, Nishiyama T, Saito S, Shiraishi Y, Yoshida K, Toya K, Shigematsu N. Five-year potency preservation after iodine-125 prostate brachytherapy. Int J Clin Oncol. 2014;19(5):940–5.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10147-013-0632-8. Epub 2013 Oct 31. PubMed PMID: 24170247CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Okihara K, Yorozu A, Saito S, Tanaka N, Koga H, Higashide S, Kikuchi T, Nakano M. Assessment of sexual function in Japanese men with prostate cancer undergoing permanent brachytherapy without androgen deprivation therapy: analysis from the Japanese Prostate Cancer Outcome Study of Permanent Iodine-125 Seed Implantation database. Int J Urol. 2017;24(7):518–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Tanaka N, Fujimoto K, Asakawa I, Hirayama A, Yoneda T, Yoshida K, Hirao Y, Hasegawa M, Konishi N. Variations in health-related quality of life in Japanese men who underwent iodine-125 permanent brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer. Brachytherapy. 2010;9(4):300–6.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brachy.2009.07.013. Epub 2010 Aug 13. PubMed PMID: 20708440CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Satoh T, Ishiyama H, Matsumoto K, Tsumura H, Kitano M, Hayakawa K, Ebara S, Nasu Y, Kumon H, Kanazawa S, Miki K, Egawa S, Aoki M, Toya K, Yorozu A, Nagata H, Saito S, Baba S. Prostate-specific antigen 'bounce' after permanent 125I-implant brachytherapy in Japanese men: a multi-institutional pooled analysis. BJU Int. 2009;103(8):1064–8.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-410X.2008.08234.x. Epub 2008 Nov 25. PubMed PMID: 19040526CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Tanaka N, Asakawa I, Fujimoto K, Anai S, Hirayama A, Hasegawa M, Konishi N, Hirao Y. Minimal percentage of dose received by 90% of the urethra (%UD90) is the most significant predictor of PSA bounce in patients who underwent low-dose-rate brachytherapy (LDR-brachytherapy) for prostate cancer. BMC Urol. 2012;12:28.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2490-12-28. PubMed PMID: 22974428; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3487947CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Namiki S, Satoh T, Baba S, Ishiyama H, Hayakawa K, Saito S, Arai Y. Quality of life after brachytherapy or radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer: a prospective longitudinal study. Urology. 2006;68(6):1230–6. Epub 2006 Dec 4. PubMed PMID: 17141839CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Uesugi T, Saika T, Edamura K, Nose H, Kobuke M, Ebara S, Abarzua F, Katayama N, Yanai H, Nasu Y, Kumon H. Primary Gleason grade 4 impact on biochemical recurrence after permanent interstitial brachytherapy in Japanese patients with low- or intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012;82(2):e219–23.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2011.04.018. Epub 2011 Jun 2. PubMed PMID: 21640517CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ohashi T, Yorozu A, Saito S, Momma T, Nishiyama T, Yamashita S, Shiraishi Y, Shigematsu N. Combined brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy without adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy for high-risk prostate cancer. Radiat Oncol. 2014;9:13.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-717X-9-13. PubMed PMID: 24401540; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3904455CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Sekiguchi A, Ishiyama H, Satoh T, Tabata K, Komori S, Tsumura H, Kawakami S, Soda I, Iwamura M, Hayakawa K. 125Iodine monotherapy for Japanese men with low-and intermediate-risk prostate cancer: outcomes after 5 years of follow-up. J Radiat Res. 2014;55(2):328–33.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jrr/rrt113. Epub 2013 Oct 8. PubMed PMID: 24105711; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3951075CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Tabata R, Kimura T, Kuruma H, Sasaki H, Kido M, Miki K, Takahashi H, Aoki M, Egawa S. Do androgen deprivation and the biologically equivalent dose matter in low-dose-rate brachytherapy for intermediate-risk prostate cancer? Cancer Med. 2016;5(9):2314–22.  https://doi.org/10.1002/cam4.820. Epub 2016 Jul 25. PubMed PMID: 27456710; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5055153CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Shimbo M, Inoue K, Koike Y, Katano S, Kawashima K. Salvage I seed implantation for prostate cancer with postradiation local recurrence. Urol Int. 2013;90(3):294–300.  https://doi.org/10.1159/000346322. Epub 2013 Mar 6. PubMed PMID:23467122CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Hori S, Tanaka N, Asakawa I, Morizawa Y, Hirayama A, Hasegawa M, Konishi N, Fujimoto K. Salvage brachytherapy for seminal vesicle recurrence after initial brachytherapy for prostate cancer: a case report. BMC Res Notes. 2014;7:760.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-0500-7-760. PubMed PMID: 25344831; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4216847CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hosogoe S, Soma O, Matsumoto T, Imai A, Hatakeyama S, Yoneyama T, Hashimoto Y, Koie T, Ohyama C, Aoki M. Salvage brachytherapy for castration-resistant and external beam radiotherapy-resistant local recurrence 17 years after radical prostatectomy. Case Rep Urol. 2015;2015:839738.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/839738. Epub 2015 Jun 11. PubMed PMID: 26171272; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4480240CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Sasaki H, Kido M, Miki K, Kuruma H, Takahashi H, Aoki M, Egawa S. Salvage partial brachytherapy for prostate cancer recurrence after primary brachytherapy. Int J Urol. 2014;21(6):572–7.  https://doi.org/10.1111/iju.12373. Epub 2013 Dec 23. PubMed PMID: 24372730CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kunogi H, Wakumoto Y, Yamaguchi N, Horie S, Sasai K. Focal partial salvage low-dose-rate brachytherapy for local recurrent prostate cancer after permanent prostate brachytherapy with a review of the literature. J Contemp Brachytherapy. 2016;8(3):165–72.  https://doi.org/10.5114/jcb.2016.60452. Epub 2016 Jun 13. PubMed PMID: 27504124; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4965495CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Miki K, Kiba T, Sasaki H, Kido M, Aoki M, Takahashi H, Miyakoda K, Dokiya T, Yamanaka H, Fukushima M, Egawa S. Transperineal prostate brachytherapy, usingI-125 seed with or without adjuvant androgen deprivation, in patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer: study protocol for a phase III, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial. BMC Cancer. 2010;10:572.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-10-572. PubMed PMID: 20964826; PubMed Central PMCID:PMC2984426CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Konaka H, Egawa S, Saito S, Yorozu A, Takahashi H, Miyakoda K, Fukushima M, Dokiya T, Yamanaka H, Stone NN, Namiki M. Tri-modality therapy with I-125 brachytherapy, external beam radiation therapy, and short- or long-term hormone therapy for high-risk localized prostate cancer (TRIP): study protocol for a phase III, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial. BMC Cancer. 2012;12:110.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-12-110. PubMed PMID: 22439742; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3350387CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Commission UNR. Consolidated guidance about materials licensees: program-specific guidance about medical use licenses. NUREG-1556. Washington, DC: US Nuclear Regulatory Commission; 2002. p. 9.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Commission UNR. Regulatory guide 8.39: release of patients administered radioactive materials. Washington, DC: US Nuclear Regulatory Commission; 1997.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hanada T, Yorozu A, Shinya Y, Kuroiwa N, Ohashi T, Saito S, Shigematsu N. Prospective study of direct radiation exposure measurements for family members living with patients with prostate (125)I seed implantation: evidence of radiation safety. Brachytherapy. 2016;15(4):412–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brachy.2016.04.007. Epub 2016 May 12. PubMed PMID: 27180131CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Satoh T, Yamanaka H, Yamashita T, Aoki M, Egawa S, Saito S, Sakata S, Shibuya H, Sugiura N, Takahashi Y, Nishimura T, Hamada T, Miki T, Yorozu A, Dokiya T. Deaths within 12 months after (125)I implantation for brachytherapy of prostate cancer: an investigation of radiation safety issues in Japan (2003–2010). Brachytherapy. 2012;11(3):192–6.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brachy.2011.06.009. Epub 2011 Sep 17. PubMed PMID: 21925958CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Satoh T, Dokiya T, Yamanaka H, Saito S, Ishiyama H, Itami J, Shibuya H, Nakano T, Shigematsu N, Aoki M, Egawa S, Hashimoto M, Nishimura T, Yorozu A. Postmortem radiation safety and issues pertaining to permanent prostate seed implantation in Japan. Brachytherapy. 2015;14(2):136–41.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brachy.2014.08.043. Epub 2014 Sep 6. Review. PubMed PMID: 25200350.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Atsunori Yorozu
    • 1
  • Shiro Saito
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Radiation OncologyNational Hospital Organization Tokyo Medical CenterTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Department of UrologyNational Hospital Organization Tokyo Medical CenterTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations