Advertisement

Posterior Tibial Tendoscopy

  • Samuel Ka Kin Ling
  • Tun Hing Lui
  • Shin Yeung Chiu
Chapter

Abstract

Posterior tibial tendon (PTT) dysfunction is a common disorder in adults and is also known as posterior tibial tendon deficiency (PTTD) and adult acquired flatfoot deformity. Flatfeet in the pediatric and the adult population are often regarded as different entities as they both have different etiologies; this chapter will focus on the adult population where the posterior tibial tendon plays a major role [1–4].

References

  1. 1.
    Sadeghi-Demneh E, Jafarian F, Melvin JMA, Azadinia F, Shamsi F, Jafarpishe M. Flatfoot in school-age children: prevalence and associated factors. Foot Ankle Spec. 2015;8(3):186–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sneyers CJ, Lysens R, Feys H, Andries R. Influence of malalignment of feet on the plantar pressure pattern in running. Foot Ankle Int. 1995;16(10):624–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Carr JB, Yang S, Lather LA. Pediatric pes planus: a state-of-the-art review. Pediatrics. 2016;137(3):e20151230.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ferciot CF. The etiology of developmental flatfoot. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1972;85:7–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Choi K, Lee S, Otis JC, Deland JT. Anatomical reconstruction of the spring ligament using peroneus longus tendon graft. Foot Ankle Int. 2003;24(5):430–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tareco JM, Miller NH, MacWilliams BA, Michelson JD. Defining flatfoot. Foot Ankle Int. 1999;20(7):456–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lee MS, Vanore JV, Thomas JL, Catanzariti AR, Kogler G, Kravitz SR, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of adult flatfoot. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2005;44(2):78–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Blake RL, Anderson K, Ferguson H. Posterior tibial tendinitis. A literature review with case reports. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 1994;84(3):141–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Supple KM, Hanft JR, Murphy BJ, Janecki CJ, Kogler GF. Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 1992;22(2):106–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Williams BR, Ellis SJ, Deyer TW, Pavlov H, Deland JT. Reconstruction of the spring ligament using a peroneus longus autograft tendon transfer. Foot Ankle Int. 2010;31(7):567–77.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gazdag AR, Cracchiolo A. Rupture of the posterior tibial tendon. Evaluation of injury of the spring ligament and clinical assessment of tendon transfer and ligament repair. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1997;79(5):675–81.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Funk DA, Cass JR, Johnson KA. Acquired adult flat foot secondary to posterior tibial-tendon pathology. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1986;68(1):95–102.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Deland JT. Adult-acquired flatfoot deformity. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2008;16(7):399–406.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mann RA. Adult acquired flatfoot deformity. Treatment of dysfunction of the posterior tibial tendon. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1997;79(9):1434.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Key JA. Partial rupture of the tendon of the posterior tibial muscle. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1953;35A(4):1006–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Goldner JL, Keats PK, Bassett FH, Clippinger FW. Progressive talipes equinovalgus due to trauma or degeneration of the posterior tibial tendon and medial plantar ligaments. Orthop Clin North Am. 1974;5(1):39–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mengiardi B, Pinto C, Zanetti M. Spring ligament complex and posterior tibial tendon: MR anatomy and findings in acquired adult flatfoot deformity. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2016;20(1):104–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Frey C, Shereff M, Greenidge N. Vascularity of the posterior tibial tendon. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1990;72(6):884–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bluman EM, Myerson MS. Stage IV posterior tibial tendon rupture. Foot Ankle Clin. 2007;12(2):341–62, viii.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Plumarom Y, Imjaijitt W, Chaiphrom N. Comparison between Staheli index on Harris mat footprint and Talar-first metatarsal angle for the diagnosis of flatfeet. J Med Assoc Thail. 2014;97(Suppl 2):S131–5.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Coughlin MJ, Kaz A. Correlation of Harris mats, physical exam, pictures, and radiographic measurements in adult flatfoot deformity. Foot Ankle Int. 2009;30(7):604–12.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Saltzman CL, El-Khoury GY. The hindfoot alignment view. Foot Ankle Int. 1995;16(9):572–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Johnson KA, Strom DE. Tibialis posterior tendon dysfunction. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1989;239:196–206.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Shibuya N, Ramanujam CL, Garcia GM. Association of tibialis posterior tendon pathology with other radiographic findings in the foot: a case-control study. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2008;47(6):546–53.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chen YJ, Liang SC. Diagnostic efficacy of ultrasonography in stage I posterior tibial tendon dysfunction: sonographic-surgical correlation. J Ultrasound Med. 1997;16(6):417–23.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Yao L, Gentili A, Cracchiolo A. MR imaging findings in spring ligament insufficiency. Skelet Radiol. 1999;28(5):245–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Khoury NJ, El-Khoury GY, Saltzman CL, Brandser EA. MR imaging of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction. Am J Roentgenol. 1996;167(3):675–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hsu TC, Wang CL, Wang TG, Chiang IP, Hsieh FJ. Ultrasonographic examination of the posterior tibial tendon. Foot Ankle Int. 1997;18(1):34–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rosenberg ZS. Chronic rupture of the posterior tibial tendon. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 1994;2(1):79–87.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Vulcano E, Deland JT, Ellis SJ. Approach and treatment of the adult acquired flatfoot deformity. Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med. 2013;6(4):294–303.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mann RA, Thompson FM. Rupture of the posterior tibial tendon causing flat foot. Surgical treatment. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1985;67(4):556–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Nielsen MD, Dodson EE, Shadrick DL, Catanzariti AR, Mendicino RW, Malay DS. Nonoperative care for the treatment of adult-acquired flatfoot deformity. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2011;50(3):311–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Alvarez RG, Marini A, Schmitt C, Saltzman CL. Stage I and II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction treated by a structured nonoperative management protocol: an orthosis and exercise program. Foot Ankle Int. 2006;27(1):2–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Shah NS, Needleman RL, Bokhari O, Buzas D. 2013 subtalar arthroereisis survey: the current practice patterns of members of the AOFAS. Foot Ankle Spec. 2015;8(3):180–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Fernández de Retana P, Alvarez F, Bacca G. Is there a role for subtalar arthroereisis in the management of adult acquired flatfoot? Foot Ankle Clin. 2012;17(2):271–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Chong DY, Macwilliams BA, Hennessey TA, Teske N, Stevens PM. Prospective comparison of subtalar arthroereisis with lateral column lengthening for painful flatfeet. J Pediatr Orthop B. 2015;24(4):345–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lui TH. Spontaneous subtalar fusion: an irreversible complication of subtalar arthroereisis. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2014;53(5):652–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Metcalfe SA, Bowling FL, Reeves ND. Subtalar joint arthroereisis in the management of pediatric flexible flatfoot: a critical review of the literature. Foot Ankle Int. 2011;32(12):1127–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kumar V, Clough TM. Talar neck fracture – a rare but important complication following subtalar arthroereisis. Foot. 2014;24(4):169–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Zhu Y, Xu X-Y. Treatment of stage II adult acquired flatfoot deformity with subtalar arthroereises. Foot Ankle Spec. 2015;8(3):194–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Barske HL, DiGiovanni BF, Douglass M, Nawoczenski DA. Current concepts review: isolated gastrocnemius contracture and gastrocnemius recession. Foot Ankle Int. 2012;33(10):915–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Harris RI, Beath T. Hypermobile flat-foot with short tendo achillis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1948;30A(1):116–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Haddad SL, Dedhia S, Ren Y, Rotstein J, Zhang L-Q. Deltoid ligament reconstruction: a novel technique with biomechanical analysis. Foot Ankle Int. 2010;31(7):639–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lui TH. Endoscopic repair of the superficial deltoid ligament and spring ligament. Arthrosc Tech. 2016;5(3):e621–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Daniels TR, Younger ASE, Penner M, Wing K, Dryden PJ, Wong H, et al. Intermediate-term results of total ankle replacement and ankle arthrodesis: a COFAS multicenter study. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2014;96(2):135–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Lui TH. Technical tips: reconstruction of deep and superficial deltoid ligaments by peroneus longus tendon in stage 4 posterior tibial tendon dysfunction. Foot Ankle Surg. 2014;20(4):295–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Pedowitz DI, Kane JM, Smith GM, Saffel HL, Comer C, Raikin SM. Total ankle arthroplasty versus ankle arthrodesis: a comparative analysis of arc of movement and functional outcomes. Bone Joint J. 2016;98B(5):634–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kelly IP, Nunley JA. Treatment of stage 4 adult acquired flatfoot. Foot Ankle Clin. 2001;6(1):167–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kadakia AR, Haddad SL. Hindfoot arthrodesis for the adult acquired flat foot. Foot Ankle Clin. 2003;8(3):569–94, x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Carranza-Bencano A, Tejero S, Del Castillo-Blanco G, Fernández-Torres JJ, Alegrete-Parra A. Minimal incision surgery for tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis. Foot Ankle Int. 2014;35(3):272–84.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Jeng CL, Bluman EM, Myerson MS. Minimally invasive deltoid ligament reconstruction for stage IV flatfoot deformity. Foot Ankle Int. 2011;32(1):21–30.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Lui TH. Tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis with combined retrograde intramedullary nail and lateral L-plate. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2012;51(5):693–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Lui TH. Posterior tibial tendoscopy: endoscopic synovectomy and assessment of the spring (calcaneonavicular) ligament. Arthrosc Tech. 2015;4(6):e819–23.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Chow HT, Chan KB, Lui TH. Tendoscopic debridement for stage I posterior tibial tendon dysfunction. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2005;13(8):695–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Lui TH. Modified endoscopic release of gastrocnemius aponeurosis. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2015;54(1):140–2.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Lui TH. Endoscopic gastrocnemius intramuscular aponeurotic recession. Arthrosc Tech. 2015;4(5):e615–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Lui TH. Endoscopic assisted posterior tibial tendon reconstruction for stage 2 posterior tibial tendon insufficiency. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2007;15(10):1228–34.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Lui TH. Arthroscopic repair of superomedial spring ligament via talonavicular arthroscopy. Arthrosc Tech. 2017;6(1):e31–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Lui TH, Chan KB, Ng S. Arthroscopic lapidus arthrodesis. Arthroscopy. 2005;21(12):1516.e1–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Lui TH. Clinical tips: anterior subtalar (talocalcaneonavicular) arthroscopy. Foot Ankle Int. 2008;29(1):94–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Lui TH, Chan LK. Safety and efficacy of talonavicular arthroscopy in arthroscopic triple arthrodesis. A cadaveric study. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2010;18(5):607–11.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Lintz F, Guillard C, Colin F, Marchand J-B, Brilhault J. Safety and efficiency of a 2-portal lateral approach to arthroscopic subtalar arthrodesis: a cadaveric study. Arthroscopy. 2013;29(7):1217–23.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Ahn JH, Lee SK, Kim KJ, Kim YI, Choy WS. Subtalar arthroscopic procedures for the treatment of subtalar pathologic conditions: 115 consecutive cases. Orthopedics. 2009;32(12):891.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Williams MM, Ferkel RD. Subtalar arthroscopy: indications, technique, and results. Arthroscopy. 1998;14(4):373–81.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Lui TH, Tong SC. Subtalar arthroscopy: when, why and how. World J Orthop. 2015;6(1):56–61.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Lui TH. New technique of arthroscopic triple arthrodesis. Arthroscopy. 2006;22(4):464.e1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Myerson M, Solomon G, Shereff M. Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction: its association with seronegative inflammatory disease. Foot Ankle. 1989;9(5):219–25.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Crates JM, Richardson EG. Treatment of stage I posterior tibial tendon dysfunction with medial soft tissue procedures. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1999;365:46–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Wertheimer SJ, Weber CA, Loder BG, Calderone DR, Frascone ST. The role of endoscopy in treatment of stenosing posterior tibial tenosynovitis. J Foot Ankle Surg. 1995;34(1):15–22.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Mosier-LaClair S, Pomeroy G, Manoli A. Operative treatment of the difficult stage 2 adult acquired flatfoot deformity. Foot Ankle Clin. 2001;6(1):95–119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Lui TH, Chan KB, Chan LK. Cadaveric study of zone 2 flexor hallucis longus tendon sheath. Arthroscopy. 2010;26(6):808–12.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Lui TH. Flexor hallucis longus tendoscopy: a technical note. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2009;17(1):107–10.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Myerson MS, Badekas A, Schon LC. Treatment of stage II posterior tibial tendon deficiency with flexor digitorum longus tendon transfer and calcaneal osteotomy. Foot Ankle Int. 2004;25(7):445–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Lui TH. Whole length flexor hallucis longus transfer with a minimally invasive approach: technique tip. Foot Ankle Int. 2011;32(7):730–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Lui TH, Chan KB, Chan LK. Zone 2 flexor hallucis longus tendoscopy: a cadaveric study. Foot Ankle Int. 2009;30(5):447–51.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Sung I-H, Lee S, Otis JC, Deland JT. Posterior tibial tendon force requirement in early heel rise after calcaneal osteotomies. Foot Ankle Int. 2002;23(9):842–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Nyska M, Parks BG, Chu IT, Myerson MS. The contribution of the medial calcaneal osteotomy to the correction of flatfoot deformities. Foot Ankle Int. 2001;22(4):278–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Koutsogiannis E. Treatment of mobile flat foot by displacement osteotomy of the calcaneus. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1971;53(1):96–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Lui TH. Percutaneous posterior calcaneal osteotomy. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2015;54:1188–92.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Lui TH, Yuen CP. Small joint arthroscopy in foot and ankle. Foot Ankle Clin. 2015;20(1):123–38.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Lui TH. Arthroscopy and endoscopy of the foot and ankle: indications for new techniques. Arthroscopy. 2007;23(8):889–902.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Matthews P, Richards H. Factors in the adherence of flexor tendon after repair. An experimental study in the rabbit. J Bone Joint Surg. 1976;58B:230–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Siegler AM, Kontopoulos V, Wang CF. Prevention of postoperative adhesions in rabbits with ibuprofen, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent. Fertil Steril. 1980;34:46–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Khanna A, et al. Prevention of adhesions in surgery of the flexor tendons of the hand: what is the evidence? Br Med Bull. 2009;90:85–109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Lui TH. Endoscopic adhesiolysis for extensive tibialis posterior tendon and achilles tendon adhesions following compound tendon rupture. Br Med J Case Rep. 2013;2013:bcr2013200824.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Lapididus PW, Seidenstein H. Chronic nonspecific tenosynovitis with effusion about the ankle. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1950;32:175–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Van Dijk CN, Kort N, Scholten PE. Tendoscopy of the posterior tibial tendon. Arthroscopy. 1997;13:692–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Lui TH. Arthroscopic and endoscopic management of stiffness problems after hindfoot trauma. Indian J Orthop. 2018;52(3):304–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Lui TH. Peroneus longus tendoscopy at the sole: a cadaveric study. Arthroscopy. 2015;31:1338–42.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Samuel Ka Kin Ling
    • 1
  • Tun Hing Lui
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Shin Yeung Chiu
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedics and TraumatologyNorth District HospitalHong KongChina
  2. 2.Department of OrthopaedicsSouthern Medical UniversityGuangzhouChina
  3. 3.Institute of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology— Chinese Academy of ScienceShenzhenChina
  4. 4.Department of Orthopaedics and TraumatologyChinese University of Hong KongHong KongChina
  5. 5.Department of Orthopaedics and TraumatologyPamela Youde Nethersole Eastern HospitalHong KongChina

Personalised recommendations