Advertisement

Fungi as Biocontrol Agent: An Alternate to Chemicals

  • Sangeeta Singh
  • Shiwani Bhatnagar
  • Sunil Choudhary
  • Bindu Nirwan
  • Kuldeep Sharma
Chapter

Abstract

To increase production, we are using fungicides indiscriminately leading to much negative effect on humans, animals and environment. An alternative to these fungicide is application of biological control agents which not only helps directly in management of diseases below economic threshold level but also have many folds beneficial effect on growth and production. Out of these biocontrol agent’s fungus plays very important role. These fungi are ubiquitous in nature, and many strains are present within the species making it more specific against insects and diseases. They are self-sustainable since spores are the means by which the infection occurs, which are produced in large numbers and are produced continuously as long as the growth conditions for it remain favourable. Thus, cost of application is also reduced. Moreover, their handing and application are also convenient, and they neither cause any harmful effect to humans and livestock nor cause any other environmental issues. The main advantage is that they readily fit into the integrated management programmes.

Keywords

Fungi Biocontrol 

References

  1. Altomare C, Norvell WA, Björkma T, Harman GE (1999) Solubilization of phosphates and micronutrients by the plant-growth-promoting and biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum. Appl Environ Microbiol 65(7):2926–2933PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Anke H, Stadler M, Mayer A, Sterner O (1995) Secondary metabolites with nematicidal and antimicrobial activity from nematophagous fungi and ascomycetes. Can J Bot 73:932–939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Azcón-Aguilar C, Barea JM (1997) Arbuscular mycorrhizas and biological control of soil-borne plant pathogens–an overview of the mechanisms involved. Mycorrhiza 6(6):457–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baker KF, Cook RJ (1974) Biological control of plant pathogens. WH Freeman and Company, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  5. Bassi A (1835) English translation by Yarrow PJ. 1958. On the mark disease, calcinacccio or muscardine, a disease that affects silk worms. Ainsworth GC, Yarrow PJ (ed) APS Phytopathol. Classics 10:1–49Google Scholar
  6. Boyette CD, Quimby PC Jr, Bryson CT, Egley GH, Fulgham FE (1993) Biological control of hemp sesbania (Sesbania exaltata) under field conditions with Colletotrichum truncatum formulated in an invert emulsion. Weed Sci:497–500Google Scholar
  7. Butt TM, Copping LG (2000) Fungal biological control agents. Pestic Outlook 11(5):186–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Callow M, Drmanac R, Drmanac S, Callow MJ, Drmanac Radoje T (2003) Universal selective genome amplification and universal genotyping system. US Patent Application 10:608–293Google Scholar
  9. Castillo MA, Moya P, Hernández E, Primo-Yufera E (2000) Susceptibility of Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae) to entomopathogenic fungi and their extracts. Biol Control 19(3):274–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chandler D, Bailey AS, Tatchell GM, Davidson G, Greaves J, Grant WP (2011) The development, regulation and use of biopesticides for integrated pest management. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser B Biol Sci 366(1573):1987CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chet H, Baker R (1981) Isolation and biocontrol potential of Trichoderma hamatum from soil naturally suppressive to Rhizoctonia solarti. Phytopathology 71:286–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chet I, Inbar J (1994) Biological control of fungal pathogens. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 48(1):37–43CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Cook RJ, Baker KF (1983) The nature and practice of biological control of plant pathogens. American Phytopathological Society, St. PaulGoogle Scholar
  14. Dahiya JS, Singh DP (1985) Inhibitory effects of Aspergillus niger culture filtrate on mortality and hatching of larvae of Meloidogyne sps. Plant Soil 86(1):145–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. de Leij FAAM, Kerry BR (1991) The nematophagous fungus Verticillium chlamydosporium as a potential biocontrol agent for Meloidogyne arenaria. Revue de Ne’matologie 14:157–164Google Scholar
  16. De Vrije T, Antoine N, Buitelaar RM, Bruckner S, Dissevelt M, Durand A, Gerlagh M, Jones EE, Lüth P, Oostra J, Ravensberg WJ (2001) The fungal biocontrol agent Coniothyrium minitans: production by solid-state fermentation, application and marketing. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 56(1):58–68CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Duarte VS, Silva RA, Wekesa VW, Rizzato FB, Dias CTS, Delalibera I (2009) Impact of natural epizootics of the fungal pathogen Neozygites floridana (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales) on population dynamics of Tetranychus evansi (Acari: Tetranychidae) in tomato and nightshade. Biol Control 51(1):81–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Elad Y (2000) Biological control of foliar pathogens by means of Trichoderma harzianum and potential modes of action. Crop Prot 19(8):709–714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Elad Y, Zvieli Y, Chet I (1986) Biological control of Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid by Trichoderma harzianum. Crop Prot 5(4):288–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Emge RG, Melching JS, Kingsolver CH (1981) Epidemiology of Puccinia chondnllina, a rust pathogen for the biological control of rush skeleton weed in the United States. Phytopathology 7:839–843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Evans HC (1987) Fungal pathogens of some subtropical and tropical weeds and the possibilities for biological control. Biocontrol News Inf 8(1):7–30Google Scholar
  22. Ferron P (1971) Influence of relative humidity on development of fungal infection caused by Beauveria bassiana. Entomol Exp Appl 14:57–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fravel DR (2005) Commercialization and implementation of biocontrol. Annu Rev Phytopathol 43:337–359CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Geiger F, Bengtsson J, Berendse F, Weisser WW, Emmerson M, Morales MB, Ceryngier P, Liira J, Tscharntke T, Winqvist C, Eggers S (2010) Persistent negative effects of pesticides on biodiversity and biological control potential on European farmland. Basic Appl Ecol 11(2):97–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Goldrnan GH, Vasseur V, Contreras R, van Montagu M (1994) Sequence analysis and expression studies of a gene encoding a novel serine + alanine-rich protein in Trichoderma harzianum. Gene 144:113–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gupta S, Dikshit AK (2010) Biopesticides: an ecofriendly approach for pest control. J Biopest 3(1):186–188Google Scholar
  27. Hamlen RA (1979) Biological control of insects and mites on European greenhouse crops: research and commercial implementation. Proce Florida State Hort Soci 92:367–368Google Scholar
  28. Haseeb A, Ahmad V, Shukla PK (2005) Comparative efficacy of pesticides, bio-control agents and botanicals against Meloidogyne incognita-fusarium oxysporum disease complex on Vigna mungo. Ann Plant Prot Sci 13(2):434–437Google Scholar
  29. Ignoffo CM (1981) The fungus Nomuraea rileyi as a microbial insecticide: fungi. In: Burges HD (ed) Microbial control of pests and plant diseases. Academic Press, London, pp 513–538Google Scholar
  30. Ikeda KI, Nakamura H, Matsumoto N (2003) Mycelial incompatibility operative in pairings between single basidiospore isolates of Helicobasidium mompa. Mycol Res 107(7):847–853CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Inbar J, Menendez A, Chet I (1996) Hyphal interaction between Trichoderma harzianum and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and its role in biological control. Soil Biol Biochem 28:757–763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Islam M, Castle SJ, Ren S (2010) Compatibility of the insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana with neem against sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, on eggplant. Entomol Exp Appl 134(1):28–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jackson MA (1997) Optimizing nutritional conditions for the liquid culture production of effective fungal biological control agents. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 19(3):180–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Jain N, Rana IS, Kanojiya A, Sandhu SS (2008) Characterization of Beauveria bassiana strains based on protease and lipase activity and their role in pathogenicity. J Basic Appl Mycol I-II:18–22Google Scholar
  35. Jatala P (1985) Biological control of nematodes. An advanced treatise on Meloidogyne. Biol Control 1:303–308Google Scholar
  36. Jatala P (1986) Biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes. Annu Rev Phytopathol 24(1):453–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Julien MH, White G (1997) Biological control of weeds: theory and practical application. Canberra, Australian Centre for International Agricultural ResearchGoogle Scholar
  38. Kerry BR (2000) Rhizosphere interactions and the exploitation of microbial agents for the biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes. Annu Rev Phytopathol 38(1):423–441CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Kim JJ, Lee MH, Yoon CS, Kim HS, Yoo JK, Kim KC (2002) Control of cotton aphid and greenhouse whitefly with a fungal pathogen. J Nat Inst Agric Sci Technol:7–14Google Scholar
  40. Kiss L (2003) A review of fungal antagonists of powdery mildews and their potential as biocontrol agents. Pest Manag Sci 59(4):475–483CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Kumar S (2012) Biopesticides: a need for food and environmental safety. J Biofertil Biopestic 3(4):1–3Google Scholar
  42. Lacey LA, Liu TX, Buchman JL, Munyaneza JE, Goolsby JA, Horton DR (2011) Entomopathogenic fungi (Hypocreales) for control of potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc)(Hemiptera: Triozidae) in an area endemic for zebra chip disease of potato. Biol Control 56:271–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lee SH, Lee S, Choi D, Lee YW, Yun SH (2006) Identification of the down-regulated genes in a mat1-2-deleted strain of Gibberella zeae, using cDNA subtraction and microarray analysis. Fungal Genet Biol 43:295–310CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Mani A, Sethi CL (1984) Effect of culture filtrates of Fusarium oxysporum f. Sp. ciceri and Fusarium solani on hatching and juvenile mobility of Meloidogyne incognita. Nematropica 14(2):139–144Google Scholar
  45. Mejía LC, Rojas EI, Maynard Z, Van Bael S, Arnold AE, Hebbar P, Samuels GJ, Robbins N, Herre EA (2008) Endophytic fungi as biocontrol agents of Theobroma cacao pathogens. Biol Control 46(1):4–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Murali M, Amruthesh KN, Sudisha J, Niranjana SR, Shetty HS (2012) Screening for plant growth promoting fungi and their ability for growth promotion and induction of resistance in pearl millet against downy mildew disease. J Phytology 4(5):1Google Scholar
  47. Nirwan B, Choudhary S, Sharma K, Singh S (2016) In vitro studies on management of root rot disease caused by Ganoderma lucidum in on Prosopis cineraria. Curr Life Sci 2(4):118–126Google Scholar
  48. Sandhu SS, Rajak RC, Agarwal GP (1993) Studies on prolonged storage of Beauveria bassiana conidia: effects of temperature and relative humidity on conidial viability and virulence against chickpea borer Helicoverpa armigera. Biocont Sci Technol 3:47–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Schwarz M, Köpcke B, Weber RW, Sterner O, Anke H (2004) 3-Hydroxypropionic acid as a nematicidal principle in endophytic fungi. Phytochemistry 65(15):2239–2245CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Seryczynska H, Bajan C (1975) Defensive reactions of L3, L4 larvae of the Colorado beetle to the insecticidal fungi Paecilomyces farinosus (Dicks) Brown et Smith, Paecilomyces fumoso-roseus (Wize), Beauveria bassiana (Bols/Vuill.) (Fungi Imperfecti: Moniliales). Bulletin de l’Academie Polonaise des Sciences 23(4):267–271Google Scholar
  51. Sharon E, Bar-Eyal M, Chet I, Herrera-Estrella A, Kleifel O, Spiegel Y (2001) Biological control of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica by Trichoderma harzianum. Phytopathology 91(7):687–693CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Sheppard AW (2003) Prioritising agents based on predicted efficacy: beyond the lottery approach. CRC for Australian weed management technical series, vol 7, pp 11–22Google Scholar
  53. Shi W, Feng M (2004a) Ovicidal activity of two fungal pathogens (Hyphomycetes) against Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Acarina: Tetranychidae). Chin Sci Bull 49(3):263–267Google Scholar
  54. Shi WB, Feng MG (2004b) Lethal effect of Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus on the eggs of Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Acari: Tetranychidae) with a description of a mite egg bioassay system. Biol Control 30(2):165–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Siddiqui ZA, Mahmood I (1996) Biological control of plant parasitic nematodes by fungi: a review. Bioresour Technol 58(3):229–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Sneh B (1998) Use of non-pathogenic or hypovirulent fungal strains to protect plants against closely related fungal pathogens. Biotechnol Adv 16(1):1–32CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Tabin T, Arunachalam A, Shrivastava K, Arunachalam K (2009) Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on damping-off disease in Aquilaria agallocha Roxb. Seedlings. Trop Ecol 50(2):243Google Scholar
  58. Thomas MB, Read AF (2007) Can fungal biopesticides control malaria? Nat Rev Microbiol 5(5):377CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Vinale F, Sivasithamparam K, Ghisalberti EL, Marra R, Woo SL, Lorito M (2008) Trichoderma–plant–pathogen interactions. Soil Biol Biochem 40(1):1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Weindling R (1932) Trichoderma lignorum as a parasite of other soil fungi. Phytopathology 22(8):837–845Google Scholar
  61. Wraight SP, Carruthers RI, Jaronski ST, Bradley CA, Garza CJ, Galani-Wraight S (2000) Evaluation of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus for microbial control of the silver leaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii. Biol Control 17:203–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sangeeta Singh
    • 1
  • Shiwani Bhatnagar
    • 1
  • Sunil Choudhary
    • 1
  • Bindu Nirwan
    • 1
  • Kuldeep Sharma
    • 1
  1. 1.Forest Protection DivisionArid Forest Research InstituteJodhpurIndia

Personalised recommendations