Pest Risk Analysis for the Shoot and Fruit Borer, Conogethes spp. (Crambidae: Lepidoptera)

  • G. P. Mutturaj
  • S. Subhash
  • Sandeep Singh
  • A. K. Chakravarthy


The borer, Conogethes punctiferalis, has spread geographically through international trade. The insect has been intercepted in consignments of fruits in England, Wales, the Netherlands, Australia, New Zealand and the USA. Conogethes is a pest of quarantine importance and therefore should be regularly monitored for which phytosanitary measures are to be followed during harvest, processing, packing and transportation.


Pest risk Analysis Phytosanitary Risk rating guidelines Conogethes 



Interaction and discussion with cardamom traders and wholesale dealers in Mudigere, Sakaleshpur, Madikeri and Calicut helped form opinions which were important for writing this chapter. Authors are thankful to authorities of the University of Agricultural Sciences, Bengaluru, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana and Spice board, Calicut, Kerala for the encouragement and help. Authors are also thankful to the scientist in charge and Dr. Rashmi, Plant Quarantine Station, Hebbal, Bengaluru.


  1. Anonymous (1954) Pests of cardamom. Memories of the Department of Agriculture, Madras, pp 998–1000Google Scholar
  2. Anonymous (2010) Import Health Standard Commodity Sub-class: Fresh Fruit/Vegetables Papaya, (Carica papaya) from Australia. Director, Plants, Food and Environment, New Zealand Ministry for Primary Industries, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  3. Anonymous (2014) Import Health Standard Commodity sub-class: Fresh fruit/vegetables Lychee (Litchi chinensis) from Thailand. Director, Plants, Food and Environment, New Zealand Ministry for Primary Industries, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  4. AQAS (2014) Conogethes sp. interceptions. Agricultural quarantine activity systems. Accessed December 9, 2014 from:
  5. Astridge D (2001) Insect fauna surveys on rambutan, durian and mangosteen in North Queensland. In: Proceedings of the sixth workshop for tropical agricultural entomologists, Darwin, Northern Territory Department of Primary Industry and Fisheries, technical bulletin no. 288, pp 75–79Google Scholar
  6. Astridge DP (2006) Rambutan – development of integrated pest management – pest monitoring and insecticide screening. RIRDC publication no. 05/187. Australian Government, Rural Industries Research and Development CorporationGoogle Scholar
  7. Astridge D, Fay H, Elder R (2005) Yellow peach moth in rare fruit. Department of Primary Industry and Fisheries. Queensland Government. Can be accessed online at:
  8. CABI (2011) Conogethes punctiferalis datasheet. In: Crop Protection Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Wallingford, UKGoogle Scholar
  9. Chai XM, He ZH (1987) Dichocrocis punctiferalis Guenee injurious to masson pine. Insect Knowl 24(2):99–100Google Scholar
  10. Chakravarthy AK, Kammar V, Lokeshwari D, Rani AT, Nagaraj T, Rajan VV (2015) The black-spotted yellow shoot-and-fruit borer, Conogethes spp. (Crambidae: Lepidoptera) – a global perspective. Curr Sci 109(6):1016–1018Google Scholar
  11. Chong KK, Ooi PAC, Tuck HC (1991) Crop pests and their management in Malaysia. Tropical Press Sdn.Bhd, Kuala Lumpur, p 242Google Scholar
  12. Cotton Catchment Communities Cooperative Research Centre (2007) Yellow peach mothGoogle Scholar
  13. CPC (2007) Crop protection compendium on internet, accessed in 2008. CAB International, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  14. Devasahayam S, Abdulla Koya KM (2005) Insect pests of ginger. In: Ravindran PN, Babu KN (eds) Ginger: the genus Zingiber. CRC Press, Washington, DC, pp 367–390Google Scholar
  15. Devasahayam S, Jacob TK, Abdulla Koya KM, Sasikumar B (2010) Screening of ginger (Zingiber officinale) germplasm for resistance to shoot borer (Conogethes punctiferalis). J Med Aromat Plant Sci 32(2):137–138Google Scholar
  16. EPPO (2013) PQR – EPPO database on quarantine pests. Available at:
  17. FAO (2007) Forest health and biosecurity working papers. Overview of forests pests. People’s Republic of China. Food And Agriculture Organization of the United Nations – Forestry Department, RomeGoogle Scholar
  18. FAVIR (2014) Fruits and Vegetables Import Requirements (FAVIR) database. USDA/APHISGoogle Scholar
  19. Follett PA, Yang MM, Lu KU, Chen TW (2007) Irradiation for Postharvest Control of Quarantine Insects. Formosan Entomol 27:1–15Google Scholar
  20. Guenée MA (1854) Histoire Naturelle des Insectes. Species Général des Lépidoptères. Roret, ParisGoogle Scholar
  21. Hill DS (1983) Agricultural insect pests of the tropics and their control, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, New York, p 746Google Scholar
  22. Honda H, Mitsuhashi W (1989) Morphological and morphometrical differences between the fruit- and Pinaceae-feeding type of yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis (Guenee) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Appl Entomol Zool 24(1):1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hong Y, Kwon K, Kim Y (2015) Post-harvest treatment on the peach pyralid moth and the small tea tortrix moth infesting apples using controlled atmosphere and temperature. Korean J Applied Entomol 54(1):11–17Google Scholar
  24. IPPC (2007) International standards for phytosanitary measures (ISPM).
  25. ISPM 11 (International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures) (2004) Pest risk analysis for quarantine pests including analysis of environmental risks and living modified organisms. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  26. Kang CH, Lee SM, Chung YJ, Choi KS, Park CG (2004) Overwintering ecology of the peach pyralid moth, Dichocrosis punctiferalis in southern regions of Korea. Korean J Appl Entomol 43(3):201–209Google Scholar
  27. Kapadia MN (1996) Estimation of losses due to pod borers in oilseed crops. J Oilseeds Res 13(1):139–140Google Scholar
  28. Konno Y, Honda H, Matsumoto Y (1981) Mechanisms of reproductive isolation between the fruit-feeding and the Pinaceae-feeding types of the yellow peach moth, Dichocrocis punctiferalis Guenee (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Jpn J Appl Entomol Zool 25(4):253–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Korycinska A (2012) Rapid assessment of the need for a detailed pest risk analysis for Conogethes punctiferalis (Guenée). The Food and Environment Research Agency, p 7Google Scholar
  30. Krishnamurthy K, Khan MM, Avadhani KK, Venkatesh J, Siddaramaiah L, Chakravarthy AK, Gurumurthy BR (1989) Three decades of cardamom research, regional research station (1958–1988). Stn Technol Bull 2:44–68Google Scholar
  31. Kwon J, Kwon Y, Byun M, Kim K (2004) Competitiveness of gamma irradiation with fumigation for chestnuts associated with quarantine and quality security. Rad Phy Chem 71(1-2):43–46 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lee HK, Woo CN, Namkoong SB, Seo YS, La JH, Kim YI, Kim KG, Kim BK (2000) Quarantine pest occurrence in exporting pear fruits (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai cv. Whangkeumbae) during cold storage. Korean J Hortic Sci Technol 18(1):22–27Google Scholar
  33. MAF Biosecurity New Zealand (2009) Import risk analysis: table grapes (Vitis vinifera) from China. MAF Biosecurity New Zealand, Wellington, p 322Google Scholar
  34. Miniraj N, Murugan N, Joseph CR (2000) Evaluation of Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum Maton) germplasm. J Spices Arom Crops 9:55–56Google Scholar
  35. Nishida GM (2002) Hawaiian terrestrial arthropod checklist, 4th edn. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu, p 313Google Scholar
  36. Púcat A (1995) Conogethes punctiferalis. Yellow peach moth. Canadian Food Inspection Agency Science BranchGoogle Scholar
  37. Ram KT, Hugar PS, Somasekhar PBV (1997) Record of Conogethes punctiferalis (Guenee) on grapes. Pest Manag Hortic Ecosyst 3(1):37Google Scholar
  38. Shashank PR, Doddabasappa B, Kammar V, Chakravarthy AK, Honda H (2015) Molecular characterization and management of shoot and fruit borer Conogethes punctiferalis Guenee (Crambidae: Lepidoptera) populations infesting cardamom, castor and other hosts. In: Chakravarthy AK (ed) New horizons in insect science: towards sustainable pest management. Springer, New Delhi, pp 207–227Google Scholar
  39. Stanley J, Chandrasekaran S, Preetha G (2009) Conogethes punctiferalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) its biology and field parasitization. Indian J Agric Sci 79(11):906–909Google Scholar
  40. Suganthy M (2011) Field screening of promising castor cultures against capsule borer, Conogethes punctiferalis and leafhopper, Empoasca flavescens. Madras Agric J 98(4/6):178–179Google Scholar
  41. Thyagaraj NE (2003) Integrated management of some important cardamom pests of hill region of Karnataka, South India. Ph D thesis, Dr BR Ambedkar University, Uttar Pradesh, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  42. USDA (1957) Insects not known to occur in the United States. Yellow peach moth (Dichocrocis punctiferalis (Guenee), pp 37–38Google Scholar
  43. Waterhouse DF (1993) The major arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture in Southeast Asia: distribution, importance and origin. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  44. Zhang BC (1994) Index of economically important Lepidoptera. CAB International, Wallingford, p 599Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. P. Mutturaj
    • 1
  • S. Subhash
    • 2
  • Sandeep Singh
    • 3
  • A. K. Chakravarthy
    • 4
  1. 1.College of HorticultureYalachahalli Horticulture Farm, Yelwala HobliMysoreIndia
  2. 2.Department of Agricultural EntomologyUniversity of Agricultural Sciences, Gandhi Krishi Vignan Kendra (GKVK)BengaluruIndia
  3. 3.Department of Fruit SciencePunjab Agricultural UniversityLudhianaIndia
  4. 4.Division of Entomology and NematologyICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural ResearchBengaluruIndia

Personalised recommendations