In Silico Study of the Geminiviruses Infecting Ornamental Plants

  • Avinash Marwal
  • Megha Mishra
  • Rakesh Verma
  • Rajneesh Prajapat
  • R. K. Gaur


Over the past few decades, there has been more interest in Geminiviruses, especially Mastrevirus and Begomovirus, as many of the diseases they cause have now reached epidemic magnitude. Ornamental plants are widely distributed in India and across the globe having high environmental adaptability. Their farming forms a major branch of horticulture. At most of the places, crops stay in the field for a particular season, while different ornamental plants grow in or nearby these agricultural fields throughout the year. Ornamental plants serve as an alternative host for Geminiviruses in the absence of the main crops and considered as a source of new viruses or reservoirs of unidentified viruses which are often neglected during diversity studies. Ornamental plants may allow the spread and transmission of Geminiviruses back to crop plants when the cropping season returns, which enhances the host range of these viruses. Thus, there is a pressing need for additional information on the diversity and distribution of Geminiviruses in ornamental plants.


Geminiviruses Mastrevirus Begomovirus Ornamental plants Alternative host 



The authors are thankful to Science and Engineering Research Board – Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi, India, for the financial assistance (File No. YSS/2015/000265) and also to the University Grant Commission, New Delhi, for providing financial assistantship under Research Award for Teacher (F.30-1/2014/RA-2014-16-GE-RAJ-4696 (SA-II).


  1. Ali A, Ahmed M, Nishigawa H, Natsuaki T (2014) Identification of Tobacco leaf curl virus infecting Lonicera japonica, an ornamental plant common in Japan. J Agric Sci Technol 16:645–655Google Scholar
  2. Banks GK, Bedford ID, Beitia FJ, Rodriguez-Cerezo E, Markham PG (1999) A novel geminivirus of Ipomoea indica (Convolvulacae) from Southern Spain. Plant Dis 83(5):486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baldotto LEB, Baldotto MA (2015) Growth and production of ornamental sunflower grown in the field in response to application of humic acids. Ciênc Rural Santa Maria 45(5):1000–1005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baliji S, Black MC, French R, Stenger DC, Sunter G (2004) Spinach curly top virus: a newly described Curtovirus species from Southwest Texas with incongruent gene phylogenies with incongruent gene phylogenies. Phytopathology 94:772–779PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Briddon RW, Bedford ID, Tsai JH, Markham PG (1996) Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the treehopper-transmitted geminivirus, Tomato Pseudo Curly Top Virus, suggests a recombinant origin. Virology 219:387–394PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bruggeman L (1964) Tropical plants and their cultivation. Thames and Hudson, London, p 228Google Scholar
  7. Baltes NJ, Hummel AW, Konecna E, Cegan R, Bruns AN, Bisaro DM, Voytas DF (2015) Nat Plants.
  8. Błażewicz-Woźniak M, Madej J, Rtemi D, Wartacz W (2012) The growth and flowering of Salvia splendens Sellow ex Roem. et Schult under flowerbed conditions. Acta Agrobot 65(2):99–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cardina J, Herms CP, Herms DA (2011) Phenological indicators for emergence of large and smooth crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis and D. ischaemum). Weed Technol 25(1):141–150. 2011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chethana GS, Hari Venkatesh KR, Gopinath SM (2013) Review on Clerodendrum inerme. J Pharm Sci Innov JPSI 2(2):38–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chaparro-Garcia A, Kamoun S, Nekrasov V (2015) Boosting plant immunity with CRISPR/Cas. Genome Biol 16:254PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chaveerach A, Aungkapattamagu S, Tanee T, Noikotr K, Sudmoon R (2014) Genetic verification and chemical contents identification of Allamanda species (Apocynaceae). Pak J Pharm Sci 27(3):417–424PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Chen S, Huang Q, Wu L, Qian Y (2015) Identification and characterization of a maize-associated mastrevirus in China by deep sequencing small RNA populations. Virol J 12:156PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dasgupta I, Malathi VG, Mukherjee SK (2003) Genetic engineering for virus resistance. Curr Sci 84:341–354Google Scholar
  15. Deepa GM, Jofeena J (2015) Analysis of phytochemicals from Eupatorium odoratum flower. Int J Ayurveda Pharm Res 3(1):1–5Google Scholar
  16. Duan YP, Powel CA, Webb SE, Purcifull DE, Hiebert E (1997) Geminivirus resistance in transgenic tobacco expressing mutated BC1 protein. MPMI 10(5):617–623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Farahanikia B, Akbarzadeh T, Jahangirzadeh A, Yassa N, Ardekani MRS, Mirnezami T, Hadjiakhoondi A, Khanavi M (2011) Phytochemical investigation of Vinca minor cultivated in Iran. Iran J Pharm Res 10(4):777–785PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Fauquet CM, Mayo MA, Maniloff J, Desselberger U, Ball LA (2011) Family Geminiviridae. In: Virus taxonomy: classification and nomenclature of viruses: Ninth report of the international committee on taxonomy of viruses. Elsevier, San Diego, pp 301–326Google Scholar
  19. Ferro MMM, Ramos-Sobrinho R, Silva JT, Assunção IP, Lima GSA (2016) Genetic structure of populations of the Begomoviruses Tomato mottle leaf curl virus and Sida mottle Alagoas virus infecting tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and Sida spp., respectively. Trop Plant Pathol. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fiallo-Olivé E, Chirinos DT, Geraud-Pouey F, Moriones E, Navas-Castillo J (2013a) Complete genome sequences of two Begomoviruses infecting weeds in Venezuela. Arch Virol 158:277–280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fiallo-Olivé E, Katis NI, Navas-Castillo J (2013b) First report of Sweet potato leaf curl virus on blue morning glory in Greece. Plant Dis 98(5):700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fischer A, Strohmeier S, Krenz B, Jeske H (2014) Evolutionary liberties of the Abutilon mosaic virus cluster. Virus Genes.
  23. Garcia-Arenal F, Fraile A, Malpica JM (2001) Variability and genetic structure of plant virus populations. Annu Rev Phytopathol 39:157–186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gaur RK, Prajapat R, Marwal A, Sahu A, Rathore MS (2011) First report of a begomovirus infecting Mimosa pudica in India. J Plant Pathol 93(SUPPL. 4):S4.63–S4.89Google Scholar
  25. Gilbertson RL, Rojas MR, Russell DR, Maxwell DP (1991) Use of asymmetric polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing to determine genetic variability of bean golden mosaic geminivirus in the Dominican Republic. J Gen Virol 72:2843–2848PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gilbertson RL, Hidayat SH, Paplomatas EJ, Rojas MR, Hou YH, Maxwel DP (1993) Pseudorecombination between infectious cloned DNA components of tomato mottle and bean dwarf mosaic Geminiviruses. J Gen Virol 74:23–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gomaa AA, Samy MN, Desoukey SY, Kamel MS (2016) Pharmacognostical studies of leaf, stem, root and flower of Abutilon hirtum (Lam.) sweet. Int J Pharm Phytochem Res 8(1):199–216Google Scholar
  28. Govindappa MR, Shankergoud I, Shankarappa KS, Wickramaarachchi WART, Reddy BA, Rangaswamy KT (2011) Molecular detection and partial characterization of Begomovirus associated with leaf curl disease of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in Southern India. Plant Pathol J 10:29–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ha C, Coombs S, Revill P, Harding R, Vu M, Dale J (2008) Molecular characterization of Begomoviruses and DNA satellites from Vietnam: additional evidence that the New World Geminiviruses were present in the Old World prior to continental separation. J Gen Virol 89:312–326PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Haider MS, Tahir M, Saeed A, Ahmed S, Parveen R, Rashid N (2008) First report of a Begomovirus infecting the ornamental plant Vinca minor L. Aust Plant Dis Notes 3:150–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hamdy RS, Abd El-Ghani MM, Youssef TL, El-Sayed M (2007) The floristic composition of some historical botanical gardens in the metropolitan of Cairo, Egypt. Afr J Agric Res 2(11):610–648Google Scholar
  32. Hansen P, Clerc B (2002) Anisocoria in the dog provoked by a toxic contact with an ornamental plant: Datura stramonium. Vet Ophthalmol 5(4):277–279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hanley-Bowdoin L, Settlage SB, Orozco BM, Nagar S, Robertson D (1999) Geminiviruses: models for plant DNA replication, transcription and cell cycle regulation. Crit Rev Plant Sci 18:71–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hanley-Bowdoin L, Settlage SB, Orozco BM, Nagar S, Robertson D (2000) Geminiviruses: models for plant DNA replication, transcription, and cell cycle regulation. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 35:105–140PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Hanley-Bowdoin L, Bejarano ER, Robertson D, Mansoor S (2013) Geminiviruses: masters at redirecting and reprogramming plant processes. Nat Rev Microbiol.
  36. He ZF, Mao MJ, Yu H, Li HP, Chen X (2009) Molecular characterization of a distinct Begomovirus infecting Allamanda cathartica in Guangdong, China. Arch Virol 54:1199–1202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hernández-Zepeda C, Idris AM, Carnevali G, Brown JK, Moreno-Valenzuela OA (2007) Preliminary identification and coat protein gene phylogenetic relationships of Begomoviruses associated with native flora and cultivated plants from the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. Virus Genes 35:825–833PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Hernandez-Zepeda C, Varsani A, Brown JK (2013) Intergeneric recombination between a new, spinach-infecting Curtovirus and a new Geminivirus belonging to the genus Becurtovirus : first New World exemplar. Arch Virol.
  39. Herrera F, Aboughanem-Sabanadzovic N, Valverde RA (2015) A Begomovirus associated with yellow vein symptoms of Oxalis debilis. Eur J Plant Pathol.
  40. Herrera-Vásquez JA, Córdoba-Sellés MC, Cebrián MC, Font-San-Ambrosio MI, Alfaro-Fernández A, Jordá C (2013) Viruses of cucurbits in Panama. J Plant Pathol 95:435–440Google Scholar
  41. Heydarnejad E, Abhari H, Yazdi HRB, Massumi H (2007) Curly top of cultivated plants and weeds and report of a unique curtovirus from Iran. J Phytopathol 155:321–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Holser RA, Bost G (2004) Hybrid hibiscus seed oil compositions. JOACS 8:795–797Google Scholar
  43. Ilyas M, Nawaz K, Shafiq M, Haider MS, Shahid AA (2013) Complete nucleotide sequences of two Begomoviruses infecting Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) from Pakistan. Arch Virol 158:505–510PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Iram S, Amrao L, Mansoor MS, Malik AH, Briddon RW, Zafar Y (2005) First report of a Begomovirus associated with leaf curl disease of Duranta erecta in Pakistan. Plant Pathol 54:260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ji X, Zhang H, Zhang Y, Wang Y, Gao C (2015) Establishing a CRISPR–Cas-like immune system conferring DNA virus resistance in plants. Nat Plants.
  46. John P, Sivalingam PN, Kumar N, Mishra A, Ahlawat YS, Malathi VG (2006) A new Begomovirus associated with yellow mosaic disease of Clerodendron inerme. Plant Pathol 55:291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Junejo JA, Gogoi G, Zaman K, Islam J, Hazarika G (2016) Phytochemical profiling and toxicological studies of Oxalis debilis Kunth leaves. Int J Green Pharm 10(3):165–171Google Scholar
  48. Kamal-Uddin M, Juraimi AS, Begum M, Ismail MR, Rahim AA, Othman R (2009) Floristic composition of weed community in turf grass area of west peninsular Malaysia. Int J Agric Biol 11:13–20Google Scholar
  49. Kareem A, Saeed S, Hammad HM (2014) Growth and performance of Calendula officinalis L. on different crop residues. World J Agric Sci 2(5):098–101Google Scholar
  50. Kemp WP, Berry JS, Caprio JM (1991) Use of ornamental lilac and honeysuckle phenophases as indicators of rangeland grasshopper development. J Range Manag 44(6):583–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Keong WC (1982) Rooting cuttings of Gardenia jasminoides, Duranta repens, and Bougainville glabra with growth retardant. PeItanika 5(1):25–29Google Scholar
  52. Keur JY (1934) Studies of the occurrence and transmission of virus diseases in the genus Abutilon. Bull Torrey Bot Club 61:53–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Khan AA, Naqvi QA, Khan MS, Singh R, Raj SK (2005) First report of a Begomovirus infecting Calendula in India. New Dis Rep 54:569Google Scholar
  54. Khurana SMP, Marwal A (2016) Recent developments towards detection & diagnosis for management of plant viruses. Indian Phytopathol 69(4s):30–34Google Scholar
  55. Kitamura K, Murayama A, Ikegami M (2004) Evidence of recombination among isolates of Tobacco leaf curl Japan virus and Honeysuckle yellow vein mosaic virus. Arch Virol 149:1221–1229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Konate G, Barro N, Fargette D, Swanson MM, Harrison BD (1995) Occurrence of whitefly-transmitted Geminiviruses in crops in Burkina Faso, and their serological detection and differentiation. Ann Appl Bid 126:121–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Koravieh MM, Roff MNM, Othman RY (2008) First report of a whitefly-transmitted Geminivirus infecting Mimosa invisa in Malaysia. Aust Plant Dis Notes 3:25–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kraberger S, Thomas JE, Geering ADW, Dayaram A, Stainton D, Hadfield J, Walters M, Parmenter KS, van Brunschot S, Collingsa DA, Martin DP, Varsani A (2012) Australian monocot-infecting mastrevirus diversity rivals that in Africa. Virus Res 169:127–136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lapido JI (1988) Viruses of vegetable crops in Africa. In: Williams AO, Mbiele AL, Nkouka N (eds) Virus diseases of plants in Africa. OAU/STRC Scientific Publication, Lagos, pp 157–167Google Scholar
  60. Leigh JH (1961) The relative palatability of various varieties of weeping love grass (Eragrostis curvula (Schrad.) Nees). J Br Grassl Soc 16:135–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Li J, Zhou X (2010) Molecular characterization and experimental host-range of two Begomoviruses infecting Clerodendrum cyrtophyllum in China. Virus Genes 41:250–259PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. Li ZB, Qin BX, Cai JH (2013) First report of Ageratum yellow vein China virus infecting Zinnia elegans in Vietnam. New Dis Rep 97:431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lozano G, Trenado HP, Valverde RA, Navas-Castillo J (2009) Novel Begomovirus species of recombinant nature in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and Ipomoea indica: taxonomic and phylogenetic implications. J Gen Virol 90:2550–2562PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. Mahesh YS, Shankarappa KS, Rangaswamy KT, Prameela HA, Aswathanarayana DS, Maruthi MN (2008) Detection of a begomovirus associated with leaf curl disease of ornamental croton (Codieum variegatum) in southern India. J Plant Pathol 90:143–149Google Scholar
  65. Mahesh YS, Shankarappa KS, Rangaswamy KT, Prameela HA, Aswathanarayana DS, Divya BL, Nagesha N, Maruthi MN (2010) Detection and characterisation of a Begomovirus associated with leaf curl disease of ornamental croton (Codiaeum variegatum). J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 85(2):101–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Mahesh YS, Shankarappa KS, Rangaswamy KT, Prameela HA, Aswathanarayana DS, Divya BL, Nagesha N, Maruthi MN (2012) Detection and characterisation of a Begomovirus associated with leaf curl disease of ornamental croton (Codiaeum variegatum). J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 85:101–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Mahgoub MH, Nahed, Aziz GA, Abu-Zied KM, Mohamed TK (2015) Effect of khellinone derivatives on growth and flowering of Dianthus chinensis L. Plant Int J Adv Res. (2015) 3(10):130–138Google Scholar
  68. Mao MJ, He ZF, Yu H, Li HP (2008) Molecular characterization of Cotton leaf Curl Multan virus and its satellite DNA that infects Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. Bing Du Xue Bao 24:64–68PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. Marwal A, Gaur RK (2017) Understanding functional genomics of PTGS silencing mechanisms for Tobacco streak virus and other Ilarviruses mediated by RNAi and VIGS. Plant-Microbe Interactions in Agro-Ecological Perspectives. In: Dhananjaya Pratap Singh (ed) Volume 1: Fundamental mechanisms, methods and functions. Springer, Chapter 24. pp 489–499, DOI: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Marwal A, Sahu A, Prajapat R, Choudhary DK, Gaur RK (2012) First report of association of Begomovirus with the leaf curl disease of a common weed, Datura inoxia. Virus Dis 23(1):83–84Google Scholar
  71. Marwal A, Sahu A, Choudhary DK, Gaur RK (2013a) Complete nucleotide sequence of a Begomovirus associated with satellites molecules infecting a new host Tagetes patula in India. Virus Genes 47(1):194–198PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. Marwal A, Sahu A, Sharma P, Gaur RK (2013b) Molecular characterizations of two Begomoviruses infecting Vinca rosea and Raphanus sativus in India. Virol Sin 28(1):053–056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Marwal A, Sahu A, Sharma P, Gaur RK (2013c) Transmission and host interaction of geminivirus in weeds. In: Plant virus-host interaction: molecular approaches and viral evolution. Elsevier Chapter 7, pp 143–161Google Scholar
  74. Marwal A, Sahu A, Gaur RK (2014) First report of airborne Begomovirus infection in Melia azedarach (Pride of India), an ornamental tree in India. Aerobiologia 30(2):211–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Marwal A, Prajapat R, Gaur RK (2016) First report of recombination analysis of betasatellite and alphasatellite sequence isolated from an ornamental plant marigold in India: an in silico approach. Int J Virol 12(1–3):10Google Scholar
  76. Marwal A, Mishra M, Sekhsaria C, Gaur RK (2017) Computational analysis and predicting ligand binding site in the Rose leaf curl virus and its betasatellite proteins: A step forward for antiviral agent designing. In: Saxena S, Tiwari AK (eds) Begomoviruses: Occurrence and management in Asia and Africa, 1st edn. Springer, Chapter 9, pp 157–168. Google Scholar
  77. Milind P, Monika (2015) Sweet potato as a super food. Int J Res Ayurveda Pharm 6(4):557–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Moffat AS (1999) Plant pathology – geminiviruses emerge as serious crop threat. Science 286:1835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Morales FJ, Anderson PK (2001) The emergence and dissemination of whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses in Latin America. Arch Virol 146:415–441PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Morren E (1869) Contagion de la panachure. Bull Acad R Sci 28:434–442Google Scholar
  81. Muhire B, Martin DP, Brown JK, Navas-Castillo J, Moriones E, Zerbini FM, Rivera-Bustamante R, Malathi VG, Briddon RW, Varsani A (2013) A genome-wide pairwise-identity-based proposal for the classification of viruses in the genus mastrevirus (Geminiviridae). Arch Virol.
  82. Navot N, Pichersky R, Zeidan M, Zamir D, Czosnek H (1991) Tomato yellow leaf curl virus: a whitefly-transmitted geminivirus with a single genomic component. Virology 185:151–161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Nejat N, Valdiani A, Cahill D, Tan YH, Maziah M, Abiri R (2015) Ornamental exterior versus therapeutic interior of Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus): the two faces of a versatile herb. Sci World J.
  84. Oluwafemi S, Kraberger S, Shepherd DN, Martin DP, Varsani A (2014) A high degree of African streak virus diversity within Nigerian maize fields includes a new mastrevirus from Axonopus compressus. Arch Virol. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Openshaw K (2000) A review of Jatropha curcas: an oil plant of unfulfilled promise. Biomass Bioenergy 19:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Osaki T, Inouye T (1983) Whitefly transmitted viruses isolated form sweet potato, Abutilon pictum and Eupatorium japonica. 1. Resemblance in intranuclear appearance of viruses. Ann Phytopathol Soc Jpn 52:128Google Scholar
  87. Padidam M, Sawyer S, Fauquet CM (1999) Possible emergence of new geminiviruses by frequent recombination. Virology 265:218–225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Palanisamy J, Arumugam R (2014) Exploration of wild ornamental flora of Madukkarai hills of southern western Ghats, Tamil Nadu. Biolife 2(3):834–841Google Scholar
  89. Pandey N, Tiwari AK (2012) Identification of Zinnia leaf curl virus infecting Zinnia elegans in India. J Biotechnol Bioinform 2:6–10Google Scholar
  90. Pekamwar SS, Kalyankar TM, Jadhav AC (2013) Hibiscus rosa-sinensis: a review on ornamental plant. World J Pharm Pharm Sci 2(6):4719–4727Google Scholar
  91. Polston JE, Anderson PK (1997) The emergence of whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses in tomato in the western hemisphere. Plant Dis 81:1358–1369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Prajapat R, Marwal A, Sahu A, Gaur RK (2011) Phylogenetics and in silico docking studies between coat protein of Mimosa yellow vein virus and whey α-lactalbumin. Am J Biochem Mol Biol 1(3):265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Prajapat R, Marwal A, Shaikh Z, Gaur RK (2012a) Geminivirus database (GVDB): first database of family Geminiviridae and its genera Begomovirus. Pak J Biol Sci 15(14):702PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Prajapat R, Marwal A, Sahu AK, Gaur RK (2012b) Molecular in silico structure and recombination analysis of betasatellite in Calotropis procera associated with Begomovirus. Arch Phytopathol Plant Protect 45(16):1980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Prajapat R, Marwal A, Gaur RK (2014) Begomovirus associated with alternative host weeds: a critical appraisal. Arch Phytopathol Plant Protect 47(2):157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Pruss G, Ge X, Shi MX, Carrington JC, Vance VB (1997) Plant viral synergism: the potyviral genome encodes a broad-range pathogenicity enhancer that transactivates replication of heterologous viruses. Plant Cell 9:859–868PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Pinto VB, Silva JP, Fiallo-Olive E, Navas-Castillo J, Zerbini FM (2015) Novel Begomoviruses recovered from Pavonia sp. in Brazil. Arch Virol.
  98. Raj SK, Khan MS, Snehi SK, Kumar S, Khan AA (2007) Natural occurrence of a Begomovirus on Dimorphotheca sinuate in India. Aust Plant Dis Notes 2:25–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Riaz A, Arshad M, Younis A, Raza A, Hameed M (2008) Effects of different growing media on growth and flowering of Zinnia elegans. Pak J Bot 40(4):1579–1585Google Scholar
  100. Rojas MR, Hagen C, Lucas WJ, Gilbertson RL (2005) Exploiting chinks in the plant’s armor: evolution and emergence of geminiviruses. Annu Rev Phytopathol 43:361–394PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Rybicki EP (1994) A phylogenetic and evolutionary justification for 3 genera of Geminiviridae. Arch Virol 139:49–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Rybicki EP, Hughes FL (1990) Detection and typing of Maize streak virus and other distantly related geminiviruses of grasses by polymerase chain reaction amplification of a conserved viral sequence. J Gen Virol 71(2519):2526Google Scholar
  103. Sahu AK, Marwal A, Nehra C, Shahid MS, Gaur RK (2014) First report of a begomovirus and associated betasatellite in Rosa indica and in India. Aust Plant Dis Notes 9:147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Sanjaya VVS, Prasad V, Kirthi N, Maiya SP, Savithri HS, Sita GL (2005) Development of cotton transgenics with antisense AV2 gene for resistance against Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuD) via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 81:55–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Saunders K, Norman A, Gucciardo S, Stanley J (2004) The DNA-b satellite component associated with ageratum yellow vein disease encodes an essential pathogenicity protein (bC1). Virology 324:37–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Seal SE, vanden Bosch F, Jeger MJ (2006) Factors influencing Begomovirus evolution and their increasing global significance: implications for sustainable control. Crit Rev Plant Sci 25:23–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Singh DK, Karjee S, Malik PS, Islam N, Mukherjee SK (2007) DNA replication and pathogenicity of MYMIV. In: Mendez-Vilas A (ed) Communicating current research and educational topics and trends in applied microbiology. Formatex, Spain, pp 155–162. ISBN-13: 9788461194223Google Scholar
  108. da Silva TBC, Costa COD, Galvão AFC, Bomfim LM, da C. Rodrigues ACB, MCS M, Dantas AA, dos Santos TR, MBP S, Bezerra DP (2016) Cytotoxic potential of selected medicinal plants in Northeast Brazil. BMC Complement Altern Med 16:199PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Snehi KS, Raj SK, Prasad V, Singh V (2016) Molecular detection and identification of Begomovirus isolates associated with mosaic disease of ornamental Jatropha species from India. Int J Bacterio Virol 1:004Google Scholar
  110. Soto MJ, Chen LF, Seo YS, Gilbertson RL (2005) Identification of regions of the beet mild curly top virus (family Geminiviridae) capsid protein involved in systemic infection, virion formation and leafhopper transmission. Virology 341:257–270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Speight JG, Singh K (2014) Environmental management of energy from biofuels and biofeedstocks. Wiley, New York. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Srivastava GS, Bhatiaa VK, Dubey KC, Garg VK (1985) Potential of Pedilanthus tithymaloides as a petro-crop. Fuel 64(5):720–721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Srivastava V, Sharma A, Alam I (2012) A review on ethnomedical and traditional uses of Mimosa pudica (chui-mui). Int Res J Pharm 3(2):41Google Scholar
  114. Srivastava A, Snehi SK, Raj SK (2013) First report of a variant of Pepper leaf curl Lahore virus on winter cherry in India. New Dis Rep 27:7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Stanley J, Bisaro DM, Briddon RW, Brown JK, Fauquet CM, Harrison BD, Rybicki EP, Stenger DC (2005) Family geminiviridae. In: Fauquet CM, Mayo MA, Maniloff J, Desselberger U, Ball LA (eds) Virus taxonomy: eighth report of the international committee on taxonomy of viruses. Elsevier Academic Press, London, pp 301–326Google Scholar
  116. Święczkowska E, Kowalkowska AK (2015) Floral nectary anatomy and ultrastructure in mycoheterotrophic plant, Epipogium aphyllum Sw. (Orchidaceae). Sci World J.
  117. Tahir M, Haider MS, Shah AH, Rashid N, Saleem F (2006) First report of bipartite Begomovirus associated with leaf curl disease of Duranta repens in Pakistan. New Dis Rep 88:339–342Google Scholar
  118. Tahir M, Haider MS, Iqbal J, Briddon RW (2009) Association of a distinct Begomovirus and a betasatellite with leaf curl symptoms in Pedilanthus tithymaloides. J Phytopathol 157:188–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Thomas JE, Massalski PR, Harrison BD (1986) Production of monoclonal antibodies to African cassava mosaic virus and differences in their reactivities with other whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses. J Gen Virol 67:2739–2748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Ueda S, Onuki M, Hanada K, Takanami Y (2008) Unique grouping of the far East Asian Begomovirus complex based on sequence analyses of the DNA-A genome and associated DNA-β satellite molecules isolated from tomato, honeysuckle and Eupatorium plants in Japan. Arch Virol 153:417–426PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Uga TS (2005) A one-step reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction system for the simultaneous detection and identification of multiple tospovirus infections. Phytopathology 95(2):166–171PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Valverde RA, Sabanadzovic S, Hammond J (2011) Viruses that enhance the aesthetics of some ornamental plants: beauty or beast? Plant Dis 96:600–611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Valverde RA, Singh R, Sabanadzovic S (2012) Detection and identification of Clerodendron golden mosaic China virus in Salvia splendens. Eur J Plant Pathol 133:499–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Varsani A, Monjane AL, Donaldson L, Oluwafemi S, Zinga I, Komba EK, Plakoutene D, Mandakombo N, Mboukoulida J, Semballa S, Briddon RW, Markham PG, Lett JM, Lefeuvre P, Rybicki EP, Martin DP (2009a) Comparative analysis of Panicum streak virus and Maize streak virus diversity, recombination patterns and phylogeography. Virol J 6:194PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Varsani A, Shepherd DN, Dent K, Monjane AL, Rybicki EP, Martin DP (2009b) A highly divergent South African geminivirus species illuminates the ancient evolutionary history of this family. Virol J 6:36PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Varsani A, Navas-Castillo J, Moriones E, Herna´ndez-Zepeda C, Idris A, Brown JK, Zerbini FB, Martin DP (2014) Establishment of three new genera in the family Geminiviridae: becurtovirus, eragrovirus and turncurtovirus. Arch Virol 159:2193–2203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Venkatanarasimman B, Rajeswari T, Padmapriya B (2012) Preliminary phytochemical screening of crude leaf extract of Clerodendrum philippinum Schauer. Int J Inst Pharm Life Sci 2(2):133–138Google Scholar
  128. Weinberger K, Msuya J (2004) Indigenous vegetables in Tanzania, significance and prospects. AVRDC The World Vegetable Centre. Tech Bull 31:71Google Scholar
  129. Worberg A, Quandt D, Barniske AM, Lohne C, Hilu KW, Borsch T (2007) Phylogeny of basal eudicots: insights from non-coding and rapidly evolving DNA. Org Divers Evol 7:55–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Yin K, Han T, Liu G, Chen T, Wang Y, Yunzi A, Yu L, Liu Y (2015) A geminivirus-based guide RNA delivery system for CRISPR/Cas9. Sci Rep 5:14926. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  131. Yang CX, Luo JS, Hong JT, Xie LH, Wu ZJ (2009) Clerodendrum yellow mosaic China virus is a distinct bipartite Begomovirus isolated from Clerodendrum Cyrtophyllum in China. J Plant Pathol 91(4):S4.97–S4.112Google Scholar
  132. Yeturu S, Jentzsch PV, Ciobota V, Guerrero R, Garrido P, Ramos LA (2016) Handheld Raman spectroscopy for the early detection of plant diseases: Abutilon mosaic virus infecting Abutilon sp. Anal Methods.
  133. Zaidi SS, Tashkandi M, Mansoor S, Mahfouz MM (2016) Engineering plant immunity: using CRISPR/Cas9 to generate virus resistance. Front Plant Sci 7:1673. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Avinash Marwal
    • 1
  • Megha Mishra
    • 1
  • Rakesh Verma
    • 1
  • Rajneesh Prajapat
    • 1
  • R. K. Gaur
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biosciences, College of Arts, Science and HumanitiesMody UniversitySikarIndia

Personalised recommendations