Trichoderma from Extreme Environments: Physiology, Diversity, and Antagonistic Activity

  • Laith Khalil Tawfeeq Al-Ani
Part of the Microorganisms for Sustainability book series (MICRO, volume 8)


The fungus Trichoderma is spreading throughout different climate zones. Therefore, this enhances the chance to get some isolates having the ability to confront poor conditions. Several extreme conditions affect Trichoderma. In this chapter I focus on important parameters that have large effects on growth, bioactivity, and antagonism as biological control agents. On the basis of these effects, some parameters are appropriate for every strain of Trichoderma: main factors such as temperature, pH, nutrient substrate, and water potential, and minor factors such as light and humidity. The temperature parameter is the first main factor that is suggested here to be responsible for alteration in Trichoderma life phases and bioactivity. Trichoderma has shown a high tolerance for temperature (range 0–50 °C). Most Trichoderma spp. showed high efficacy at moderate temperatures. Trichoderma spp. can tolerate pH from 2.0 to 13, but more Trichoderma tend toward acidic media. Nutrient substrate, water potential, light, and humidity were effective factors related to one or two activities of Trichoderma. However, parameters are very important in determining the efficacy of Trichoderma for use in controlling plant pathogens. Therefore, we can consider four points to confront these weaknesses of some Trichoderma-derived biopesticides and biofertilizers to control plant pathogens.


Trichoderma Extreme soils Diversity Biology Plant 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laith Khalil Tawfeeq Al-Ani
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Plant Protection, College of AgricultureUniversity of BaghdadBaghdadIraq
  2. 2.School of Biology ScienceUniversiti Sains MalaysiaMindenMalaysia

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