Nitrogen and Legumes: A Meta-analysis

  • S. K. Kakraliya
  • Ummed Singh
  • Abhishek Bohra
  • K. K. Choudhary
  • Sandeep Kumar
  • Ram Swaroop Meena
  • M. L. Jat


The current progress in agricultural production does not really cater to the demand of the burgeoning human population. Consequently, this puts global food and nutritional security at a great risk. This challenge calls for concerted efforts of all stakeholders to produce required quantity and quality of assured foods for ensuring food security. In the past, the principal driving force was to increase the yield potential of food crops and to maximize productivity. Today, the drive for productivity is increasingly combined with a desire for sustainability. For farming systems to remain productive and to be sustainable in the long term, it will be necessary to replenish the reserves of nutrients which are removed or lost from the soil. The nitrogen (N) inputs derived from atmospheric N via biological N fixation (BNF). Therefore, current farming systems need sustainable intensification through the inclusion of legume crops. This facilitates the precise use of nitrogen (N) by reducing their losses into the environment and ensures self-sufficiency in protein. The relevance of legumes in this context is enhanced as these crops offer numerous amenities that remain in line with prevalent sustainability principles. Legume crops provide protein-rich food, oil and fibre while supplying the 195 Tg N year−1 (also includes actinorhizal species) to the agroecosystem through the process of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF). Besides serving as the fundamental global source of good-quality food and feed, legume crops contribute to 15% of the N in an intercropped cereal and mitigate the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) by reducing the application demand of synthetic nitrogenous fertilizers. Legume cultivation releases up to seven times less GHGs per unit area than non-legume crops. Legumes allow the sequestration of carbon (1.42 Mg C ha−1 year−1) in soils and induce the conservation of fossil energy inputs in the system. The other benefits of legume crops include their significant positive impacts on biodiversity and soil health. Rotating legume crops with non-legume crops has the dual advantage of cultivating the legumes with slight or no extra N fertilizer. Care should be taken to ensure the availability of adequate N for the succeeding non-legume crops. The legume crops respond very well to conservation of agricultural practices. Overall, these characteristics are crucial to agriculture both in developing and developed countries apart from the conventional farming systems. Legumes in rotation promote exploration of nutrients by crops from different soil layers. They also help in reducing pressure on soil created by monocropping. Thus, crop rotation acts like a biological pump to recycle the nutrients. Hence, inclusion of legumes in the cropping system is inevitable to advance soil sustainability and food and nutritional security without compromising on the long-term soil fertility potential.


Legumes’ effects on succeeding crops Legumes mitigate GHGs Nitrate leaching N fixation Residual N in soil 



Adenosine diphosphate




Biological nitrogen fixation


Greenhouse gases


Global warming potential




Nitrogen use efficiency


Soil organic carbon




  1. Adeleke MA, Haruna IM (2012) Residual nitrogen contributions from grain legumes to the growth and development of succeeding maize crop. ISRN Agron.
  2. Ahlawat IPS, Gangaiah B (2004) Grain legumes farmers own nitrogen fertilizer units role revisited. In: Souvenir: national symposium on resource conservation and agricultural productivity, 22–25 November, LudhianaGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmad T, Hafeez FY, Mahmood T, Malik K (2001) Residual effect of nitrogen fixed by mungbean (Vigna radiata) and blackgram (Vigna mungo) on subsequent rice and wheat crops. Aus J Exp Agric 41:245–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ambrosano EJ, Trivelin PCO, Cantarella H, Ambrosano GMB, Schammass EA, Guirado N, Rossi F, Mendes PCD, Muraoka T (2005) Utilization of nitrogen from green manure and mineral fertilizer by sugarcane. Sci Agric 62:534–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ambrosano EJ, Trivelin PCO, Cantarella H, Ambrosano GMB, Schammass EA, Muraoka T, Guirado N, Rossi F (2009) Nitrogen supply to maize from sunn hemp and velvet bean green manures. Sci Agric 66:386–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ambrosano EJ, Ambrosano GMB, Azcón R, Cantarella H, Dias FLF, Muraoka T, Trivelin PCO, Rossi F, Schammass EA, Sachs RCC (2011) Productivity of sugarcane after previous legumes crop. Bragantia 70(4):1–9. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Angus JF, Kirkegaard JA, Hunt JR, Ryan MH, Ohlander L, Peoples MB (2015) Break crops and rotations for wheat. Crop Pasture Sci 66:523–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Aranjuelo I, Irigoyen JJ, Nogués S, Sánchez DM (2009) Elevated CO2 and water availability effect on gas exchange and nodule development in N2-fixing alfalfa plants. Environ Exp Bot 65:18–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Banyong T, Viriya L, Sanun J, Aran P, Prabhakar P, Suhas P W, Sahrawat KL (2000) Role of legumes in improving soil fertility and increasing crop productivity in Northeast Thailand reportGoogle Scholar
  10. Berg WA (1997) Residual nitrogen effects on wheat following legumes in the Southern Plains. J Plant Nutr 20:247–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bhat TA, Ahmad L, Ganai MA, Ul-Haq S, Khan OA (2015) Nitrogen fixing biofertilizers; mechanism and growth promotion: a review. J Pure Appl Microbiol 9(2):1675–1690Google Scholar
  12. Bonilla DP, Nolot JM, Raffaillac D, Justes E (2017) Innovative cropping systems to reduce N inputs and maintain wheat yields by inserting grain legumes and cover crops in southwestern France. Eur J Agron 82:331–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brooker RW, Bennett AE, Cong WF, Daniell TJ, George TS, Hallett PD (2015) Improving intercropping: a synthesis of research in agronomy, plant physiology and ecology. New Phytol 206:107–117CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bruulsema TW, Christie BR (1987) Nitrogen contribution to succeeding corn from alfalfa and red clover. Agron J 79:96–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bundy LG (1998) Soil and applied, University of Wisconsin System Board of Regents and University of Wisconsin-Extension. A2519 Soil and applied nitrogen, R-07-98-IM-75
  16. Buragohain S, Sharma B, Nath JD, Gogaoi N, Meena RS, Lal R (2017) Impact of ten years of bio-fertilizer use on soil quality and rice yield on an inceptisol in Assam, India. Soil Res.
  17. Carlsson G, Huss-Danell K (2003) Nitrogen fixation in perennial forage legumes in the field. Plant Soil 253:353–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Carroll SB, Salt SD (2004) Ecology for gardeners. Timber Press, Portland, p 93. ISBN:978-0-88192-611-8Google Scholar
  19. Chafi MH, Bensoltane A (2003) Vicia faba (L), a source of organic and biological manures for the Algerian Arid regions. World J Agric Sci 5:698–706Google Scholar
  20. Chalk PM (1998) Dynamics of biologically fixed N in legume-cereal rotation: a review. Aust J Agric Res 49:303–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Clune S, Crossin E, Verghese K (2017) Systematic review of greenhouse gas emissions for different fresh food categories. J Clean Prod 140:766–783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Crutzen PJ, Mosier AR, Smith KA, Winiwarter W (2007) N2O release from agrobiofuel production negates global warming reduction by replacing fossil fuels. Atmos Chem Phys Discuss 7:11191–11205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dadhich RK, Meena RS, Reager ML, Kansotia BC (2015) Response of bio-regulators to yield and quality of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czernj. and Cosson) under different irrigation environments. J App and Nat Sci 7(1):52–57Google Scholar
  24. Dalal RC, Doughton JA, Strong WM, Weston EJ, Cooper JE, Wildermuth GB, Lehane KJ, King AJ, Holmes CJ (1998) Sustaining productivity of a vertisol at Warra, Queensland, with fertilisers, no-tillage or legumes. Wheat yields, nitrogen benefits and water-use efficiency of chickpea-wheat rotation. Aust J Exp Agric 38:489–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Datta R, Kelkar A, Baraniya D, Molaei A, Moulick A, Meena RS, Formanek P (2017) Enzymatic degradation of lignin in soil: a review. Sustainability MDPI 9:1163. 1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dhakal Y, Meena RS, Kumar S (2016) Effect of INM on nodulation, yield, quality and available nutrient status in soil after harvest of green gram. Legum Res 39(4):590–594Google Scholar
  27. Entry JA, Mitchell CC, Backman CB (1996) Influence of management practices on soil organic matter, microbial biomass and cotton yield in Alabamas Old Rotation. Biol Fertil Soils 23(4):353–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Evans J, Fettell NA, Coventry DR, Connor GE, Walsgott DN, Mahoney J, Armstrong EL (1991) Wheat responses after temperate crop legumes in South-Eastern Australia. Aust J Agric Res 42:31–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. FAO (2011) The state of the world’s land and water resources for food and agriculture (SOLAW) managing systems at risk. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/Earthscan, Rome/LondonGoogle Scholar
  30. FAOSTAT (2014) Update on 9/03/2017
  31. Frame J (2005) Forage legumes for temperate grasslands. Science Publishers, Enfield USA and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  32. Frankow BE, Dahlin AS (2013) N2-fixation, N transfer, and yield in grassland communities including a deep-rooted legume or non-legume species. Plant Soil 370:567–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Garrigues E, Corson MS, Walter C, Angers DA, Van der Werf H (2012) Soil quality indicators in LCA: method presentation with a case study. In: Corson MS, van der Werf HMG (eds) Proceedings of the 8th international conference on life cycle assessment in the agri-food sector, 1–4 October 2012. INRA, Saint Malo, pp 163–168Google Scholar
  34. Gibson AH (1976) In: Nutman PS (ed) Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in plants, In Biological Programme No. 7. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 385–403Google Scholar
  35. Gonzalez LJ, Rodelas C, Pozo V, Salmeron MV, Salmeron V (2005) Liberation of amino acids by heterotrophic nitrogen fixing bacteria. Amino Acids 28:363–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Graham PH, Vance CP (2003) Legumes: importance and constraints to greater use. Plant Physiol 131:872–877CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Gregorich EG, Rochette PV, Bygaart AJ, Angers D (2005) Greenhouse gas contributions of agricultural soils and potential mitigation practices in Eastern Canada. Soil Tillage Res 81:53–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Groffman P (2012) Terrestrial denitrification: challenges and opportunities. Ecol Process 1:112. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Guardia G, Tellez-Rio A, García-Marco S, Martin-Lammerding D, Tenorio JL, Ibáñez MÁ, Vallejo A (2016) Effect of tillage and crop (cereal versus legume) on greenhouse gas emissions and Global Warming Potential in a non-irrigated Mediterranean field. Agric Ecosyst Environ 221:187–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gupta DK, Bhatiaa A, Kumar A, Das TK, Jain N, Tomar R, Sandeep KM, Fagodiya RK, Dubey R, Pathak H (2016) Mitigation of greenhouse gas emission from rice-wheat system of the Indo-Gangetic plains: through tillage, irrigation and fertilizer management. Agric Ecosyst Environ 230:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hajduk E, Właśniewski S, Szpunar KE (2015) Influence of legume crops on content of organic carbon in sandy soil. Soil Sci Annu 66:52–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Havlin JL, Tisdale SL, Nelson WL, Beaton JD (2014) Soil fertility and fertilizers; An introduction to nutrient management, 8th edn. ISBN:978-81-203-4868-4Google Scholar
  43. Herridge DF, Peoples MB, Boddey RM (2008) Global inputs of biological nitrogen fixation in agricultural systems. Plant Soil 311:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hestermann OB, Sheaffer CC, Barnes DK, Lueschen WE, Ford JH (1986) Alfalfa dry matter and nitrogen production, and fertilizer nitrogen response in legume corn rotations. Agron J 78:19–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hungria M, Vargas MAT (2000) Environmental factors affecting N2 fixation in grain legumes in the tropics, with an emphasis on Brazil. Field Crop Res 65:151–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. James W (2013) Nitrogen in soil and the environment. College of Agriculture and Life Science, TucsonGoogle Scholar
  47. Jannink JL, Liebman M, Merrick LC (1996) Biomass production and nitrogen accumulation in pea, oat, and vetch green manure mixtures. Agron J 88(2):231–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Jensen ES, Hauggaard NH (2003) How can increased use of biological N2 fixation in agriculture benefit the environment? Plant Soil 252:177–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Jensen CR, Joernsgaard B, Andersen MN, Christiansen JL, Mogensen VO, Friis P, Petersen CT (2004) The effect of lupins as compared with peas and oats on the yield of the subsequent winter barley crop. Eur J Agron 20:405–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Jensen ES, Peoples MB, Boddey RM, Gresshoff PM, Hauggaard-Nielsen H, Alves BJ, Morrison MJ (2012) Legumes for mitigation of climate change and the provision of feedstock for biofuels and bio refineries. A review. Agron Sustain Dev 32:329–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Jeuffroy MH, Baranger E, Carrouée B, Chezelles ED, Gosme M, Hénault C (2013) Nitrous oxide emissions from crop rotations including wheat, oilseed rape and dry peas. Biogeosciences 10:1787–1797CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kabir Z, Koide RT (2002) Effect of autumn and winter mycorrhizal cover crops on soil properties, nutrient uptake and yield of sweet corn in Pennsylvania, USA. Plant Soil 238(2):205–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kahindi J, Karanja N, Gueye M (2009) In: Doelle HW, Raken S, Berovic M (eds) Biological nitrogen fixation biotechnology, vol XV. Fundam Biotechnol. ISSBN:978-1-184826-269-0Google Scholar
  54. Kaiser EA, Kohrs K, Kücke M, Schnug E, Munch JC, Heinemeyer O (1998) Nitrous oxide (N2O) release from arable soil: importance of perennial forage crops. Biol Fertil Soils 28(1):36–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kirkegaard JA, Christen O, Krupinsky J, Layzell DB (2008) Break crop benefits in temperate wheat production. Field Crop Res 107:185–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kumar S, Sheoran S, Kumar SK, Kumar P, Meena RS (2016) Drought: a challenge for Indian farmers in context to climate change and variability. Prog Res, An Int J 11:6243–6246Google Scholar
  57. Kumari S, Rajeshwari PS (2011) Symbiotic and asymbiotic nitrogen fixation.
  58. Kumbhar AM, Buriro UA, Junejo S, Oad FC, Jamro GH, Kumbhar BA, Kumbhar SA (2008) Impact of different nitrogen levels on cotton growth, yield and N-uptake planted in legume rotation. Pak J Bot 40(2):767–778Google Scholar
  59. La Favre JS, Focht DD (1983) Conservation in soil of H2 liberated from N2 fixation by H up-nodules. Appl Environ Microbiol 46:304–311PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. Ladd JN, Amato M, Jackson RB, Butler JHA (1983) Utilization by wheat crops of nitrogen from legume residues decomposing in soils in the field. Soil Biol Biochem 15:231–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Ladha JK, Peoples MB (1995) Management of biological nitrogen fixation for the development of more productive and sustainable agricultural systems. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, p 287Google Scholar
  62. Lemke RL, Zhong Z, Campbell CA, Zentner RP (2007) Can pulse crops play a role in mitigating greenhouse gases from North American agriculture? Agron J 99:1719–1725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Li YF, Ran W, Zhang RP, Sun SB, Xu GH (2009) Facilitated legume nodulation, phosphate uptake and nitrogen transfer by arbuscular inoculation in an upland rice and mung bean intercropping system. Plant Soil 315:285–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Luce SM, Grant CA, Zebarth BJ, Ziadi N, O’Donovan JT, Blackshaw RE (2015) Legumes can reduce economic optimum nitrogen rates and increase yields in a wheat-canola cropping sequence in western Canada. Field Crop Res 179:12–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lupwayi NZ, Kennedy AC, Chirwa RM (2010) Grain legume impacts on soil biological processes in Sub-Saharan Africa. African J Plant Sci 5:1–7Google Scholar
  66. Mahdhi M, Lajudie P, Mars M (2008) Phylogenetic and symbiotic characterization of rhizobial bacteria nodulating Argyrolobium uniflorum in Tunisian arid soils. Can J Microbiol 54:209–217CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Mayer J, Buegger FL, Jensen SE, Schloter M, Heb J (2003) Residual nitrogen contribution from grain legumes to succeeding wheat and rape and related microbial process. Plant Soil 255:541–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Meena VS, Maurya BR, Verma R, Meena RS, Jatav GK, Meena SK, Meena R, Meena SK (2013) Soil microbial population and selected enzyme activities as influenced by concentrate manure and inorganic fertilizer in alluvium soil of Varanasi. The Biosc 8(3):931–935Google Scholar
  69. Meena RS, Yadav RS, Meena VS (2014a) Response of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) varieties to sowing dates and NP fertilizers under western dry zone of India. Bangladesh J Bot 43(2):169–173Google Scholar
  70. Meena VS, Maurya BR, Meena RS, Meena SK, Singh NP, Malik VK (2014b) Microbial dynamics as influenced by concentrate manure and inorganic fertilizer in alluvium soil of Varanasi, India. African J Microb Res 8(1):257–263Google Scholar
  71. Meena RS, Yadav RS, Meena H, Kumar S, Meena YK, Singh A (2015a) Towards the current need to enhance legume productivity and soil sustainability worldwide: a book review. J Clean Prod 104:513–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Meena RS, Dhakal Y, Bohra JS, Singh SP, Singh MK, Sanodiya P (2015b) Influence of bioinorganic combinations on yield, quality and economics of mungbean. Am J Exp Agric 8(3):159–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Meena RS, Meena VS, Meena SK, Verma JP (2015c) Towards the plant stress mitigate the agricultural productivity: a book review. J Clean Prod 102:552–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Meena VS, Maurya BR, Meena RS (2015d) Residual impact of well-grow formulation and NPK on growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Bangladesh J Bot 44(1):143–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Meena RS, Gogaoi N, Kumar S (2017a) Alarming issues on agricultural crop production and environmental stresses. J Clean Prod 142:3357–3359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Meena RS, Kumar V, Yadav GS, Mitran T (2017b) Response and interaction of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the soybean rhizosphere: a review. Plant Growth Reg. Accepted in pressCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mitchell WH, Teel MR (2007) Winter annual cover crops for no tillage corn production. Agron J 69:569–573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Mubarak AR, Rosenani AB, Anuar AR, Zauyah S (2002) Decomposition and nutrient release of maize stover and groundnut haulm under tropical field conditions of Malaysia. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 33(3&4):609–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Mugwe J, Mugendi DN, Mucheru-Muna M, Kungu J (2011) Soil inorganic N and N uptake by maize following application of legume biomass, tithonia, manure and mineral fertilizer in central Kenya. In: Bationo A (ed) Innovations as key to the Green Revolution in Africa. Springer, pp 605–612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Nair KPP, Patel UK, Singh RP, Kaushik MK (1979) Evaluation of legume intercropping in conservation of fertilizer nitrogen in maize culture. J Agric Sci 93:189–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Nulik J, Dalgliesh N, Cox K, Gabb S (2013) Integrating herbaceous legumes into crop and livestock systems in eastern Indonesia. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR), CanberraGoogle Scholar
  82. Osman AN, Ræbild A, Christiansen JL, Bayala J (2011) Performance of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) intercropped under Parkia biglobosa in an agroforestry system in Burkina Faso. Afr J Agric Res 6(4):882–891Google Scholar
  83. Pappa VA, Rees RM, Walker RL, Baddeley JA, Watson CA (2012) Legumes intercropped with spring barley contributes to increased biomass production and carry-over effects. J Agric Sci 150:584–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Paré T, Chalifour FP, Bourassa J, Antoun H (1992) Forage-corn dry-matter yields and N uptake as affected by previous legumes and N fertilizer. Can J Plant Sci 72:699–712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Peix A, Velazquez E, Silva LR, Mateos PF (2010) Key molecules involved in beneficial infection process in rhizobia-legume symbiosis. In: Microbes for legume improvement. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Peoples MB, Brockwell J, Herridge DF, Rochester IJ, Alves BJR, Urquiaga S, Boddey RM, Dakora FD, Bhattarai S, Maskey SL, Sampet C, Rerkasem B, Khan DF, Hauggaard NH, Jensen ES (2009) The contributions of nitrogen-fixing crop legumes to the productivity of agricultural systems. Symbiosis 48:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Peter VM, Cassman K, Cleveland C, Crews T, Christopher BF, Grimm BN, Howarth WR, Marinov R, Martinelli L, Rastetter B, Sprent IJ (2002) Towards an ecological understanding of biological nitrogen fixation. Biogeochemistry 57:1–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Postgate J (1998) Nitrogen fixation, 3rd edn. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  89. Ram K, Meena RS (2014) Evaluation of pearl millet and mungbean intercropping systems in Arid Region of Rajasthan (India). Bangladesh J Bot 43(3):367–370Google Scholar
  90. Ravishankara R, Daniel JS, Portmann RW (2009) Nitrous oxide (N2O): the dominant ozone-depleting substance emitted in the 21st century. Science 5949:123–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Rees RM, Augustin J, Alberti GB, Ball C et al (2013) Nitrous oxide emissions from European agriculture an analysis of variability and drivers of emissions from field experiments. Biogeosciences 10:2671–2682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Robertson GP, Paul EA, Harwood RR (2004) Greenhouse gases (GHGs) in intensive agriculture: contributions of individual gases to the radiative forcing of the atmosphere. Science 5486:1922–1925Google Scholar
  93. Rochette P, Angers DA, Chantigny MH, MacDonald JD, Bissonnette N, Bertrand N (2009) Ammonia volatilization following surface application of urea to tilled and no-till soils: a laboratory comparison. Soil Tillage Res 103:310–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Ruschel AP, Döbereiner J (1965) Bactérias assimbióticas fixadoras de N na rizosfera de gramíneas forrageiras. In: Congresso Internacional de Pastagens, vol 9. São Paulo, pp 1103–1107Google Scholar
  95. Sawatsky N, Soper RJ (1991) A quantitative measurement of the nitrogen loss from the root system of field peas (Pisum avense L.) grown in the field. Soil Biol Biochem 23:255–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Schulz S, Keatinge JDH, Wells GJ (1999) Productivity and residual effects of legumes in rice based cropping systems in a warm temperature environment. Legume biomass production and N- fixation. Field Crop Res 61:23–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Schwenke GD, Herridge DF, Scheer C, Rowlings DW, Haigh BM, McMullen KG (2015) Soil N2O emissions under N2-fixing legumes and nitrogen-fertilised canola: a reappraisal of emissions factor calculations. Agric Ecosyst Environ 202:232–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Seitzinger S, Harrison JA, Bohlke JK, Bouwman AF, Lowrance R, Peterson B, Tobias C, Van Drecht G (2006) Denitrification across landscapes and waterscapes: a synthesis. Ecol Appl 16:2064–2090CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Senbayram M, Wenthe C, Lingner A, Isselstein J, Steinmann H, Kaya C, Köbke S (2016) Legume-based mixed intercropping systems may lower agricultural born N2O emissions. Energy Sustain Soc 6:2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Sergei AM (2012) Nitrogen cycle. In: Spradley J, Elliott KD, Dutch SI, Boorstein M (eds) Earth’s weather, water, and atmosphere. EBSCO. Earth Sci, pp 347–350Google Scholar
  101. Seymour N, McKenzie K, Krosch S (2015) Fixing more nitrogen in pulse crops. In: Rachaputi RCN (ed) Nindigully GRDC grains research update. Department of Agriculture and FisheriesGoogle Scholar
  102. Shaha Z, Shahb SH, Peoplesc MB, Schwenked GD, Herridge DF (2003) Crop residue and fertiliser N effects on nitrogen fixation and yields of legume-cereal rotations and soil organic fertility. Field Crop Res 83:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Sindhu SS, Dua S, Verma MK, Khandelwal A (2010) Growth promotion of legumes by inoculation of rhizosphere bacteria, Microbes for legume improvement, vol 9. Springer, Wien, pp 195–237. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Skorupska A, Wielbo J, Kidaj D, Kozaczuk MM (2010) Enhancing rhizobium-legume symbiosis using signaling factors. In: Khan MS et al (eds) Microbes for legume improvement, vol 2. Springer, Wien, pp 27–54. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Smith KA, Conen F (2004) Impacts of land management on fluxes of trace greenhouse gases. Soil Use Manag 20:255–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Sqrensen J, Sessitsch A (2007) Plant-associated bacteria lifestyle and molecular interactions. In: van Elsas JD, Jansson JK, Trevors JT (eds) Modern soil microbiology, 2nd edn. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton, pp 211–236Google Scholar
  107. Stagnari F, Maggio A, Galieni A, Pisante M (2017) Multiple benefits of legumes for agriculture sustainability. Chem Biol Technol Agric 4:2. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Sulieman S, Tran LP (2015) Legume nitrogen fixation in a changing environment, achievements and challenges.
  109. Takle E (2008) Global warming: agriculture’s impact on greenhouse gas emission, Ag DM Newsletter ArticleGoogle Scholar
  110. Timothy CE (1999) The presence of nitrogen fixing legumes in terrestrial communities: evolutionary vs ecological considerations. Biogeochemistry 46:233–246Google Scholar
  111. Unkovich M, Herridge D, Peoples M (2008) Measuring plant-associated nitrogen fixation in agricultural systems, ACIAR Monograph No. 136Google Scholar
  112. Varma D, Meena RS (2016) Mungbean yield and nutrient uptake performance in response of NPK and lime levels under acid soil in Vindhyan region, India. J App Nat Sci 8(2):860–863Google Scholar
  113. Varma D, Meena RS, Kumar S, Kumar E (2017) Response of mungbean to NPK and lime under the conditions of Vindhyan Region of Uttar Pradesh. Legum Res 40(3):542–545Google Scholar
  114. Verma JP, Jaiswal DK, Meena VS, Meena RS (2015) Current need of organic farming for enhancing sustainable agriculture. J Clean Prod 102:545–547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Vieira RF, Mendes IC, Junior FBR, Hungria M (2010) Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in tropical food grain legumes: current status. Microbes for legume improvement Chapter 8. In: Khan MS et al (eds) Microbes for legume improvement. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Vitousek PM, Menge DNL, Reed SC, Cleveland CC (2013) Biological nitrogen fixation: rates, patterns and ecological controls in terrestrial ecosystems. Philos Trans R Soc B 368:20130119. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Voisin AS, Guéguen J, Huyghe C, Jeuffroy MH, Magrini MB, Meynard JM (2014) Legumes for feed, food, biomaterials and bioenergy in Europe: a review. Agron Sustain Dev 34:361–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Weil RR, Brady NC (2017) The nature and properties of soil, 17th edn. Pearson and Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River. ISBN:978-0133254488Google Scholar
  119. Yadav RL, Dwivedi BS, Pandey PS (2000) Rice-wheat cropping system: assessment of sustainability under green manuring and chemical fertilizer inputs. Field Crop Res 65:15–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Yadav SS, Hunter D, Redden B, Nang M, Yadava DK, Habibi AB (2015) Impact of climate change on agriculture production, food, and nutritional security. In: Redden R, Yadav SS, Maxted N, Dulloo MS, Guarino L, Smith P (eds) Crop wild relatives and climate change. Wiley, Hoboken, pp 1–23Google Scholar
  121. Yadav GS, Lal R, Meena RS, Datta M, Babu S, Das, Layek J, Saha P (2017) Energy budgeting for designing sustainable and environmentally clean/safer cropping systems for rainfed rice fallow lands in India. J Clean Prod 158:29–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Yano KH, Daimon H, Mimoto (1994) Effect of Sunhemp and peanut incorporated as green manure on growth and nitrogen uptake of the succeeding wheat. Jpn J Crop Sci 63(1):137–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Yusuf AA, Abaidoo RC, Iwuafor ENO, Olufajo OO, Sanginga N (2009) Rotation effects of grain legumes and fallow on maize yield, microbial biomass and chemical properties of an Alfisol in the Nigerian savanna. Agric Ecosyst Environ 12:325–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. K. Kakraliya
    • 1
  • Ummed Singh
    • 2
  • Abhishek Bohra
    • 2
  • K. K. Choudhary
    • 3
  • Sandeep Kumar
    • 1
  • Ram Swaroop Meena
    • 4
  • M. L. Jat
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of AgronomyCCS Haryana Agricultural UniversityHisarIndia
  2. 2.ICAR – Indian Institute of Pulses ResearchKanpurIndia
  3. 3.ICAR – Central Arid Zone Research InstituteRRS PaliIndia
  4. 4.Department of AgronomyInstitute of Agricultural Sciences (BHU)VaranasiIndia
  5. 5.International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT)- NASC ComplexNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations