Advertisement

The Kothari Commission and Financing of Education

  • Jandhyala B. G. Tilak
Chapter

Abstract

The Education Commission (1964–66) chaired by D.S. Kothari made a valuable set of recommendations on financing education in India, many of which are still relevant for education planning but have not received much official attention. A review of the premises of the recommendations, the visionary approach adopted by the commission and their current relevance is attempted in this chapter and will hopefully be useful for the preparation of the Eleventh Plan.

Keywords

Share of education in national income Allocation to education National policy on education Five year plans scholarships Research Centrally sponsored sector Grand-in-aid Cost recovery Fees 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Paper presented in the National Seminar on the Education Commission: Revisiting the Commission’s Premises, Vision and Impact on Policy Formulation, organised by the National University of Educational Planning and Administration, New Delhi, December 26–28, 2006, to commemorate the birth centenary of D.S. Kothari.

References

  1. Acharya Ramamurti Committee. 1990. Government of India: Towards an Enlightened and Human Society: NPE 1986: A Review, Report of the Committee for Review of National Policy on Education 1986 [Chairman: Acharya Ramamurti]. Faridabad: Government of India Press.Google Scholar
  2. Adiseshiah, M.S. 1994. Education: The Normative (Kothari) Frame and the Actual. In Education, Science and Human Values: Essays in Honour of Professor D.S. Kothari, ed. R.C. Mehrotra and R.K. Arora, 120–138. New Delhi: Wiley Eastern.Google Scholar
  3. BJP, and Alliance Partners. 1998. National Agenda for Governance: Closing the Gap Between People’s Aspirations and Government’s Performance, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  4. Blaug, Mark, Richard Layard, and Maureen Woodhall. 1969. The Causes of Graduate Unemployment in India. London: Allen Lane the Penguin.Google Scholar
  5. Burgess, T., Richard Layard, and Pitambar Pant. 1968. Manpower and Educational Development in India 1961–1986. London: Oliver and Boyd.Google Scholar
  6. Delors Commission. 1996. Learning the Treasure Within: Report to UNESCO of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century (Chairperson: Jacques Delors). Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  7. Desai, D.M. 1953. Universal, Compulsory and Free Primary Education in India. Bombay: Indian Institute of Education.Google Scholar
  8. Education Commission. 1966. Education and National Development: Report of the Education Commission 1964–66. New Delhi: Government of India, Ministry of Education [Reprint by the National Council of Educational Research and Training, March 1971].Google Scholar
  9. Government of India. 1968. National Policy on Education 1968. New Delhi: Ministry of Education.Google Scholar
  10. Government of India. 1985. Challenge of Education. New Delhi: Ministry of Education, Government of India.Google Scholar
  11. Government of India. 1986. National Policy on Education 1986. New Delhi: Ministry of Human Resource Development.Google Scholar
  12. Government of India. 2005. Report of the Committee on National Common Minimum Programme’s Commitment to Six Per cent of GDP to Education. New Delhi: National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration.Google Scholar
  13. Kamat, A.R. 1985. Education and Social Change in India. Bombay: Somaiya.Google Scholar
  14. Kher Committee. 1951. Report of the Committee on the Relationship Between State Governments and Local Bodies in the Administration of Primary Education (Chairman: B.G. Kher). New Delhi: Government of India.Google Scholar
  15. Kolhatkar, M.R. 1988. Education Expenditure in India in Relation to National Income (1980–88): Trends and Implications. Journal of Education and Social Change 2 (2): 104–127.Google Scholar
  16. Ministry of Finance. 1999. Economic Survey 1998–99. New Delhi: Ministry of Finance, Government of India.Google Scholar
  17. Mishan, Edward J. 1969. Some Heretical Thoughts on University Reform: The Economics of Changing the System. Encounter 32 (3) (March): 3–15.Google Scholar
  18. Naik, J.P. 1975. Elementary Education in India: A Promise to Keep. Bombay: Allied.Google Scholar
  19. Naik, J.P. 1979. The Education Commission and After. New Delhi [Second edition, APH Publishing Corporation, New Delhi, 1997].Google Scholar
  20. Planning Commission. 1999. Ninth Five-Year Plan 1997–2002 (Draft), vol. II. New Delhi: Government of India.Google Scholar
  21. Sadgopal, Anil. 2004. Globalisation and Education: Defining the Crisis. XVI Zakir Husain Memorial Lecture. New Delhi.Google Scholar
  22. Sarup, Anand. 1988. Planning for Educational Development. In Higher Education in India: The Social Context, ed. Amrik Singh and G.D. Sharma, 252–262. Delhi: Konark.Google Scholar
  23. Schultz, Theodore W. 1961. Investment in Human Capital. American Economic Review 51 (1) (March): 1–15.Google Scholar
  24. Schultz, T.W. 1989. Investing in People: Schooling in Low Income Countries. Economics of Education Review 8 (3) (June): 219–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Shah, K.R. 2006. State Inaction in Education in India. Journal of Educational Planning and Administration 20 (4) (October): 465–472.Google Scholar
  26. Tapas Majumdar Committee. 2005. See also the Report of the Committee on National Common Minimum Programme’s Commitment to Six Per Cent of GDP to Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development, New Delhi (November) [Chairman: Tapas Majumdar]. http://niepa.org/download/mhrdpercent20report.pdf.
  27. Tilak, Jandhyala B.G. 1984. Political Economy of Investment in Education in South Asia. International Journal of Educational Development 4 (2): 155–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Tilak, Jandhyala B.G. 1986a. Political Economy of Investment in Education in South Asia: A Reply. International Journal of Educational Development 6 (3): 209–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Tilak, Jandhyala B.G. (ed.). 1986b. Education and Regional Development. New Delhi: Yatan Publications.Google Scholar
  30. Tilak, Jandhyala B.G. 1989. Centre-State Relations in Financing Education in India. Comparative Educational Review 33 (4) (November): 450–480.Google Scholar
  31. Tilak, Jandhyala B.G. 1990. Expenditure on Education in India. Journal of Education and Social Change IV (2) (July–September): 62–69.Google Scholar
  32. Tilak, Jandhyala B.G. 1992. Student Loans in Financing Higher Education in India. Higher Education 23 (4) (June): 389–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Tilak, Jandhyala B.G. 1994. Resource Requirements of Education in India: Implications for the Tenth Finance Commission. Report Prepared for the Government of India. New Delhi: National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration. http://shikshanic.nic.in/cd50years/g/U/18/toc.htm.
  34. Tilak, Jandhyala B.G. 1996a. How Free Is ‘Free’ Primary Education in India? Economic and Political Weekly 31 (5 and 6) (3 and 10 February): 275–282 and 355–366.Google Scholar
  35. Tilak, Jandhyala B.G. 1996b. Higher Education Under Structural Adjustment. Journal of Indian School of Political Economy 8 (2) (April–June): 266–293.Google Scholar
  36. Tilak, Jandhyala B.G. 1999. National Human Development Initiative: Education in the Union Budget. Economic and Political Weekly 34 (10–11) (6 March): 614–620.Google Scholar
  37. Tilak, Jandhyala B.G. 2001. Education and Development: Lessons from Asian Experience. Indian Social Science Review 3 (2) (July–December): 219–266 (ICSSR, New Delhi).Google Scholar
  38. Tilak, Jandhyala B.G. 2003. State, Households and Markets in Education. Malcolm Adiseshiah Memorial Lecture. Chennai: Madras Institute of Development Studies.Google Scholar
  39. Tilak, Jandhyala B.G. 2004. Absence of Policy and Perspective in Higher Education. Economic and Political Weekly 39 (21) (22 May): 2159–2164.Google Scholar
  40. Tilak, Jandhyala B.G. 2006. On Allocating 6 Per Cent GDP to Education. Economic and Political Weekl 41 (7) (18 February): 613–618.Google Scholar
  41. Tilak, J.B.G., and G. Rani. 2003. Changing Pattern of University Finances in India. Journal of Services Research 2 (2) (October 2002–March 2003): 5–46.Google Scholar
  42. UPA Government. 2004. Common Minimum Programme. United Progressive Alliance, New Delhi (May). http://pmindia.nic.in/cmp.pdf.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jandhyala B. G. Tilak
    • 1
  1. 1.New DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations