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Education Poverty in India

  • Jandhyala B. G. Tilak
Chapter

Abstract

Using the 52nd round of the National Sample Survey, supplemented by the data available from the latest All-India Education Survey, an attempt at unravelling several dimensions of deprivation of education of the poor in India is made here. The chapter exposes the most disturbing feature of the Indian education system, i.e., utter lack of equity in access to education over different economic classes of people. The evidence on the Indian States and also the evidence by household expenditure groups confirm significant, strong and inverse correlation between levels of educational attainment and levels of poverty. Participation in education is a consistently increasing function of household economic levels and the conformity of such a systematic pattern in case of all groups of population—rural, urban, male and female, rather with no exception at all is strikingly clear. The factors that explain low participation and high dropout rates of the poor are also analysed.

Keywords

Educational deprivation Economic class Participation in education Household expenditure Out of school children Dropout ‘Free’ education Cultural prejudices Child labour 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This is a revised and enlarged version of the paper originally prepared for a back ground study on Poverty in India prepared by the Centre for Development Alternatives, Ahmedabad, which was to form an input into the World Development Report 2000/1. Full or parts of this paper were presented in the National Seminar on Poverty in India organised by the Centre for Development Alternatives in New Delhi (May 2000), Symposium on the Development Policies for the New Millennium organised by the Indira Gandhi Institute for Development Research, Mumbai (12–14 July 2000), and Seminar on Education For All: A New Role for NGOs, organised by the International Institute of Education, Towa University and Centre for International Cooperation in Education, in Tokyo (5 September 2000). The author benefited from the comments received from Indira Hirway, A.M. Nalla Gounden, S.K. Ghosh, Suresh Tendulkar, S. Mahendra Dev, Kenneth King, Nagao Masafumi and other participants of the above seminars. The usual disclaimers apply.

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Authors and Affiliations

  • Jandhyala B. G. Tilak
    • 1
  1. 1.New DelhiIndia

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