Tsunami Aid and Its Effectiveness
The global architecture of humanitarian aid is barely adequate to deal with mounting emergency situations arising out of natural and technological hazards, as well as civil and military conflicts. The Boxing Day Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 was a notable exception; not only did the aid flow, it overflowed in many places and sectors. This was largely due to the exceptional nature of the catastrophe—in intensity, in magnitude and scale, in impact, in damage and loss, and in consequences—that spread across countries and continents. The decade-long experiences with tsunami aid—from pledges to releases, from releases to expenses, from expenses to recoveries and from recoveries to resilience—are well documented in the growing volume of literature on the subject. This chapter outlines the key lessons learnt in tsunami aid and its effectiveness. The lessons are presented in a framework for the management of humanitarian aid, from inception to execution, covering different phases of disaster risk management: from emergency relief and rehabilitation to long-term recovery and reconstruction; from reconstructing infrastructure and livelihoods to building resilience of communities and countries.
KeywordsIndian ocean tsunami Humanitarian aid Aid effectiveness Reconstruction Livelihoods Resilience
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