Seed Priming: A Low-Cost Technology for Resource-Poor Farmers in Improving Pulse Productivity

  • Malay K. Bhowmick


Pulses continue to become an integral component of sustainable crop production system for their ability towards biological nitrogen fixation, low water requirement, comparatively shorter duration and capacity to withstand abnormal weather conditions. Average pulse productivity in India often becomes low at famers’ fields due to a number of constraints. Moreover, these crops are mainly grown under energy-starved conditions by small and marginal farmers, who do not have sufficient resources with regard to fine seedbed preparation before sowing as well as post-sowing management practices along with appropriate plant protection measures. Hence, poor seed germination, slow and insufficient seedling emergence and inappropriate stand establishment are not uncommon in stress-prone areas. Seed priming is a simple, inexpensive, highly effective and risk-averting tool for improving plant acclimatization under both biotic and abiotic stresses, besides ensuring uniform seed germination, rapid emergence, better stand establishment, improved crop growth, and higher productivity of pulses. The possible technological options for seed priming in pulses include hydro-priming, osmo-priming, bio-priming, nutri-priming, solid matrix priming, hormo-priming, halo-priming, nano-priming and ultra-priming. The present chapter highlights different aspects, techniques and importance of seed priming with particular reference to pulse crops.


Crop establishment Pulse productivity Seed priming 


  1. Afzal I, Rehman HU, Naveed M, Basra SMA (2016) Recent advances in seed enhancements. In: New challenges in seed biology – basic and translational research driving seed technology. Intech Open, pp 47–74. Scholar
  2. Ahlawat IPS, Sharma P, Singh U (2016) Production, demand and import of pulses in India. Indian J Agron 61(4th IAC Special Issue):S33–S41Google Scholar
  3. Ali MO, Sarkar A, Rahman MM, Gahoonia TS, Uddin MK (2005) Improvement of lentil yield through seed priming in Bangladesh. J Lentil Res 2:54–59Google Scholar
  4. Ali S, Arif M, Gul R, Khan A, Shah SS, Ali I (2007) Improving maize seed emergence and early seedling growth through water soaking. Sci Khyber 19:173–177Google Scholar
  5. Ali M, Ghosh PK, Hazra KK (2014) Resource conservation technologies in rice fallow. In: Ghosh PK, Kumar N, Venkatesh MS, Hazra KK, Nadarajan N (eds) Resource conservation technology in pulses. Scientific Publishers (India), Jodhpur, pp 83–89Google Scholar
  6. Ansari O, Choghazardi HR, Sharif Zadeh F, Nazarli H (2012) Seed reserve utilization and seedling growth of treated seeds of mountain ray (Secale montanum) as affected by drought stress. Cercetări Agronomice Moldova 2(150):43–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arif M, Ali S, Shah A, Javed N, Rashid A (2005) Seed priming maize for improving emergence and seedling growth. Sarhad J Agric 21:539–543Google Scholar
  8. Arteca RN (1996) Brassinosteroids. In: Davies PJ (ed) Plant hormones, physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology. Huwer Academic Publishers, New York, pp 206–213Google Scholar
  9. Ashraf M, Foolad MR (2005) Pre-sowing seed treatment – a shotgun approach to improve germination, plant growth, and crop yield under saline and non-saline conditions. Adv Agron 88:223–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Assefa MK, Hunje R, Koti RV (2010) Enhancement of seed quality in soybean following priming treatment. Karnataka J Agric Sci 23:787–789Google Scholar
  11. Basha M (1982) Effect of chemical fortification of seeds on storability, field performance and quality of the resultant seeds in greengram. M.Sc. thesis, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  12. Basra SMA, Farooq M, Tabassum R (2005) Physiological and biochemical aspects of seed vigor enhancement treatments in fine rice (Oryza sativa L.). Seed Sci Technol 33:623–628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bassi G, Sharma S, Gill BS (2011) Pre-sowing seed treatment and quality invigoration in soybean {Glycine max (L) Merrill}. Seed Res 31:81–84Google Scholar
  14. Bennett MA, Grassbaugh EM, Evans AE (2013) Vegetable crop seed vigor and seedling performance. Acta Hortic 975:172–179Google Scholar
  15. Bewley JD (1997) Seed germination and dormancy. Plant Cell 9:1055–1066PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bhowmick MK (2010) Effect of planting time and seed priming on growth and yield of lentil under rice-utera system. J Food Legum 23:152–153Google Scholar
  17. Bhowmick MK (2013) Seed priming and foliar nutrition towards enhancing Lathyrus productivity under rice-utera system. In: Proceedings of the Centenary Session, 100th Indian Science Congress, Section of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, 3–7 Jan 2013, Kolkata, West Bengal, India, p 219Google Scholar
  18. Bhowmick MK, Aich A, Aich SS, Shrivastava MP, Gupta S, Man GC (2005) Crop diversification through paira (utera) cropping with rabi pulses. SATSA Mukhapatra – Ann Tech Issue 9:43–60Google Scholar
  19. Bhowmick MK, Biswas PK, Sen P, Bhattacharyya P (2010) Studies on seed priming, row spacing and foliar nutrition in chickpea under rainfed conditions in West Bengal, India, In: Proceedings of the international seminar on Climate Change and Environmental Challenges of 21st century, 7–9 Dec 2010, Institute of Environmental Science. University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, pp 79–80Google Scholar
  20. Bhowmick MK, Dhara MC, Islam S, Biswas PK, Duary B (2011) Maximization of lentil productivity under rice-utera system in West Bengal, Abstracts of Research Papers. The Eighteenth West Bengal State Science and Technology Congress, 28 Feb–01 Mar 2011. Ramakrishna Mission Residential College, Narendrapur, pp 204–205Google Scholar
  21. Bhowmick MK, Gupta S, Bhattacharyya P (2012) Effect of seed priming and foliar nutrition on growth and productivity of lathyrus under rice-utera system in West Bengal, Abstracts. International conference on recent trends in Lathyrus sativus research, 8–9 Nov 2012. National Institute of Nutrition (ICMR), Hyderabad, p 39Google Scholar
  22. Bhowmick MK, Duary B, Biswas PK, Rakshit A, Adhikari B (2013) Seed priming, row spacing and foliar nutrition in relation to growth and yield of chickpea under rainfed condition. SATSA Mukhapatra – Ann Tech Issue 17:114–119Google Scholar
  23. Bhowmick MK, Duary B, Biswas PK (2014a) Promoting grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L.) cultivation in rice-fallows of West Bengal. In: Chattopadhyay PK (ed) Some empirical aspects of economic growth and diversification in India’s emerging economy. New Delhi Publishers, New Delhi, pp 367–373Google Scholar
  24. Bhowmick MK, Dhara MC, Duary B, Biswas PK, Bhattacharyya P (2014b) Improvement of lathyrus productivity through seed priming and foliar nutrition under rice-utera system. In: Proceedings of international seminar on “Integrating agriculture and allied research: prioritizing future potentials for secure livelihoods”, 6–9 Nov 2014, Crop and Weed Science Society, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Nadia, West Bengal, India, p 97Google Scholar
  25. Bhowmick MK, Dhara MC, Duary B, Biswas PK, Bhattacharyya P (2014c) Improvement of Lathyrus productivity through seed priming and foliar nutrition under rice-utera system. J Crop Weed 10(2):277–280Google Scholar
  26. Bhowmick MK, Duary B, Dana I, Biswas PK, Dhara MC (2017) Low cost technologies for improving productivity of Lathyrus under rice-utera system in West Bengal. In: Moktan A (ed) Contemporary issues in agriculture, environment and rural development in India. New Delhi Publishers, New Delhi, pp 113–118Google Scholar
  27. Biswas PK, Bhowmick MK (2015) Crop diversification through pulses in the northeastern plain zone of India. In: Ghosh M, Sarkar D, Roy BC (eds) Diversification of agriculture in eastern India, India studies in business and economics. Springer, New Delhi, pp 132–139Google Scholar
  28. Bose B (2014) Role of seed priming in abiotic stress management in plants, Book of Abstracts. National Seminar on “Agriculture and Bio-security in Changing Scenario”, 1–3 Feb 2014. Department of ASEPAN, PSB, Visva-Bharati, Sriniketan, pp v–viiGoogle Scholar
  29. Bray CM (1995) Biochemical processes during osmopriming of seeds. In: Kigel J, Galili G (eds) Seed development and germination. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 767–789Google Scholar
  30. Brocklehurst PA, Dearman J (2008) Interaction between seed priming treatments and nine seed lots of carrot, celery and onion. II. Seedling emergence and plant growth. Ann Appl Biol 102:583–593Google Scholar
  31. Cakmak I (2000) Possible roles of zinc in protecting plant cells from damage by reactive oxygen species. New Phytol 146:185–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Chiu KY, Sung JM (2002) Effect of priming temperature on storability of primed sweet corn seed. Crop Sci 42:1996–2003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Côme D (1980) Problems of embryonal dormancy as exemplified by apple embryo. Israel J Bot 29:145–156Google Scholar
  34. Côme D, Thévenot C (1982) Environmental control of embryo dormancy and germination. In: Khan AA (ed) The physiology and biochemistry of seed development, dormancy and germination. Elsevier Biomedical Press, Amsterdam, pp 271–298Google Scholar
  35. Corbineau F, Côme D (2006) Priming: a technique for improving seed quality. Seed Testing International. ISTA News Bulletin No. 132:38–40Google Scholar
  36. De Chandra G (1999) Fundamentals of agronomy. Oxford and IBH Publishing Company, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  37. Dey S, Pramanik K, Mukherjee S, Poddar S, Barik K (2014) Effect of seed priming and straw mulching on growth and productivity of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under rainfed condition. SATSA Mukhapatra – Ann Tech Issue 18:126–131Google Scholar
  38. Diniz KA, Silva PA, Oliveira JA, Evangelista JRE (2009) Sweet pepper seed responses to inoculation with microorganisms and coating with micronutrients, amino acids and plant growth regulators. Sci Agric 66(3):293–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Dugesar V, Chaurasia AK, Bara BM, Kant K (2017) Effect of different priming methods on nodulation in blackgram (Vigna mungo L.) seeds. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 6(7):1137–1143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Eleiwa ME (1989) Effect of prolonged seed soaking on the organic and mineral components of immature pods of soybeans. Egypt J Bot 32:149–160Google Scholar
  41. Ermiş S, Kara F, Özden E, Demir I (2016) Solid matrix priming of cabbage seed lots: repair of ageing and increasing seed quality. J Agric Sci 22:588–595Google Scholar
  42. FAO (2016a) ‘Climate smart’ pulses are key to global food security: FAO. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. Accessed 7 Jan 2017Google Scholar
  43. FAO (2016b) Pulses Nutritious seeds for a sustainable future. International Year of Pulses, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), 189 p
  44. Farooq M, Basra SMA, Khalid A, Tabassum R, Mehmood T (2006) Nutrient homeostasis, reserves metabolism and seedling vigor as affected by seed priming in coarse rice. Can J Bot 84:1196–1202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Farooq M, Basra SMA, Wahid A, Khaliq A, Kobayashi N (2009) Rice seed invigoration. In: Lichtfouse E (ed) Sustainable agriculture reviews. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 137–175Google Scholar
  46. Ghosh PK, Hazra KK, Nath CP, Das A, Acharya CL (2016) Scope, constraints and challenges of intensifying rice (Oryza sativa) fallows through pulses. Indian J Agron 61(4th IAC Special Issue):S122–S128Google Scholar
  47. Golezani KG, Jafari SF, Kolvanagh JS (2011) Seed priming and field performance of soybean (Glycine max L.) in response to water limitation. Not Bot Horti Agrobo 39(2):186–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Grant C, Bittman S, Montreal M, Plenchette C, Morel C (2005) Soil and fertilizer phosphorus: effect of plant P supply and mycorrhizal development. Can J Plant Sci 85:3–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gupta S, Bhowmick MK (2005) Scope of growing Lathyrus and lentil in relay cropping systems after rice in West Bengal, India. Lathyrus Lathyrism Newsl 4:28–33Google Scholar
  50. Gupta S, Bhowmick MK (2012a) Enhancing lentil productivity under rice-utera system in West Bengal, India. J Lentil Res 5:23–32Google Scholar
  51. Gupta S, Bhowmick MK (2012b) Strategies for maximizing lathyrus productivity under rice-utera system in West Bengal, Abstracts, International conference on recent trends in Lathyrus sativus research, 8–9 Nov 2012. National Institute of Nutrition (ICMR), Hyderabad, p 25Google Scholar
  52. Gupta S, Bhowmick MK (2013) Achieving higher seed yield of lathyrus in rice-fallows of West Bengal. SATSA Mukhapatra – Ann Tech Issue 17:65–76Google Scholar
  53. Hacısalihoglu G (2007) Germination characteristics of three warm-season turfgrasses subjected to matriconditioning and aging. Hort Technol 17(4):480–485Google Scholar
  54. Hadas A (2004) Seedbed preparation – the soil physical environment of germinating seeds. In: Benech-Arnold RL, Sánchez RA (eds) Handbook of seed physiology-applications to agriculture. Food Products Press® and The Haworth Reference Press, imprints of The Haworth Press, New York, pp 3–49Google Scholar
  55. Halmer P (2004) Methods to improve seed performance in the field. In: Benech-Arnold RL, Sánchez RA (eds) Handbook of seed physiology-applications to agriculture. Food Products Press® and The Haworth Reference Press, imprints of The Haworth Press, New York, pp 125–166Google Scholar
  56. Harman GE, Nelson EB (1994) Mechanisms of protection of seed and seedlings by biological seed treatments: implications for practical disease control, in seed treatment: progress and prospects, mono, vol 57. BCPC, Thornton Health, Surrey, pp 283–292Google Scholar
  57. Harris D (1992) Staying in control of rainfed crops. In: Proceedings of the first annual scientific conference of the SADCC/ODA land and water management programme, Gaborone, Botswana, pp 257–262Google Scholar
  58. Harris D (1996) The effects of manure, genotype, seed priming, depth and date of sowing on the emergence and early growth of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench in semi-arid Botswana. Soil Tillage Res 40:73–88Google Scholar
  59. Harris D (2006) Development and testing of ‘on-farm’ seed priming. Adv Agron 90:129–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Harris D, Joshi A, Khan PA, Gothkar P, Sodhi PS (1999) On-farm seed priming in semiarid agriculture: development and evaluation in maize, rice and chickpea in India using participatory methods. Exp Agric 35:15–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Harris D, Rashid A, Hollington PA, Ali S, Rafiq M (2004) Mungbean production in the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan and the influence of on-farm seed priming. In: Improving income and nutrition by incorporating mungbean in cereal fallows in the Indo-Gangetic plains of South Asia. Proceedings. Final workshop and planning meeting, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India, 27–31 May 2004, Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center (AVRDC), South Asia Vegetable Research Network, Great Britain, Dept for International Development, The World Vegetable Center, 2004 – Mung bean. AVRDC Publication No. 06-682, 342 ppGoogle Scholar
  62. Harris D, Rashid A, Miraj G, Arif M, Yunas M (2008) ‘On-farm’ seed priming with zinc in chickpea and wheat in Pakistan. Plant Soil 306:3–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Heydecker W (1973) Germination of an idea: the priming of seeds. School of Agriculture Research, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, pp 50–67Google Scholar
  64. Heydecker WJ, Higgins J, Gulliver K (1973) Accelerated germination by osmotic seed treatment. Nature 246:42–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Howell CR, DeVay JE, Garber RH, Batson WE (1997) Field control of cotton seedling disease with Trichoderma virens in combination with fungicide seed treatment. J Cotton Sci 1:15–20Google Scholar
  66. Imran M, Neumann G, Ròmheld V (2004) Nutrient seed priming improves germination rate and seedling growth under submergence stress at low temperature. International Research on Food Security, Natural Resource Management and Rural Development, Cuvillier Verlag, GòttingenGoogle Scholar
  67. Iqbal M, Ashraf M (2007) Seed treatment with auxins modulates growth and ion partitioning in salt-stressed wheat plants. J Integr Plant Biol 49:1003–1015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Johnson SE, Lauren JG, Welch RM, Duxbury JM (2005) A comparison of the effects of micronutrient seed priming and soil fertilization on the mineral nutrition of chickpea (Cicer arietinum), lentil (Lens culinaris), rice (Oryza sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) in Nepal. Exp Agric 41:427–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Jyotsna V, Srivastava AK (1998) Physiological basis of salt stress resistance in pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.)-II. Pre-sowing seed soaking treatment in regulating early seeding metabolism during seed germination. Pl Physiol Biochem 25:89–94Google Scholar
  70. Kaya MD, Okçu G, Atak M, Cikili Y, Kolsarici O (2006) Seed treatments to overcome salt and drought stress during germination in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Eur J Agron 24:291–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kepczynska E, Piekna-Grochala J, Kepczynski J (2007) Seed germination of two tomato cultivars following matrix-conditioning under optimal and stress temperatures. Seed Sci Technol 35:749–753CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Khan AA (1992) Preplant physiological seed conditioning. Hortic Rev 13:131–181Google Scholar
  73. Khan AA, Maguire JD, Abawi GS, Ilyas S (1992) Matriconditioning of vegetable seeds to improve stand establishment in early field plantings. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 117(1):41–47Google Scholar
  74. Khan A, Khalil SK, Khan AZ, Marwat KB, Afzal A (2008) The role of seed priming in semi-arid area for mungbean phenology and yield. Pak J Bot 40(6):2471–2480Google Scholar
  75. Khan HA, Ayub CM, Pervez MA, Bilal RM, Shahid MA, Ziaf K (2009) Effect of seed priming with NaCl on salinity tolerance of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) at seedling stage. Soil Environ 28:81–87Google Scholar
  76. Kumar N, Singh MK, Ghosh PK, Venkatesh MS, Hazra KK, Nadarajan N (2012) Resource conservation technology in pulse based cropping systems. Publication No. 1/2012. ICAR-Indian Institute of Pulses Research, Kanpur, 32Google Scholar
  77. Maroufi K, Farahani HA, Moradi O (2011) Evaluation of nano priming on germination percentage in greengram (Vigna radiata L.). Adv Environ Biol 5(11):3659–3663Google Scholar
  78. Maske VG, Dotale RD, Sorte PN, Chore CN (1997) Germination, root and shoot studies in soybean as influenced by GA3 and NAA. J Soils Crops 7:147–149Google Scholar
  79. Mastouri F, Bjorkman T, Harman GE (2010) Seed treatment with Trichoderma harzianum alleviates biotic, abiotic, and physiological stresses in germinating seeds and seedlings. Phytopathology 100(11):1213–1221PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. McDonald MB (2000) Seed priming. In: Black M, Bewley JD (eds) Seed technology and its biological basis. Sheffield Academic Press, Sheffield, pp 287–325Google Scholar
  81. Meena SK, Rakshit A, Meena VS (2016) Effect of seed bio-priming and N doses under varied soil type on nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under greenhouse conditions. Biocatal Agric Biotechnol 6:68–75Google Scholar
  82. Meena SK, Rakshit A, Singh HB, Meena VS (2017) Effect of nitrogen levels and seed bio-priming on root infection, growth and yield attributes of wheat in varied soil type. Biocatal Agric Biotechnol 7:172–178Google Scholar
  83. Miano AC, Pereira JDC, Castanha N, Júnior MDDM, Augusto PED (2016) Enhancing mung bean hydration using the ultrasound technology: description of mechanisms and impact on its germination and main components. Sci Rep Nat 6:388996. Scholar
  84. Mishra SN, Chaurasia AK, Tripathi V, Kumar B (2017) Effects of seed priming methods on growth and nodulation characters in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) seeds. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 6(4):620–623Google Scholar
  85. Mondal SS, Ghosh A (2005) Integrated nutrient management on the productivity and nutrient uptake of crops in rice-lathyrus (as utera)-sesame cropping system under rainfed lowland ecosystem. J Crop Weed 1:12–16Google Scholar
  86. Moussavi-Nik M, Rengel Z, Pearson JN, Hollamby G (1997) Dynamics of nutrient remobilization from seed of weed genotypes during imbibition, germination and early seedling growth. Plant Soil 197:271–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Musa AM, Harris D, Johansen C, Kumar J (2001) Short duration chickpea to replace fellow after aman rice: the role of on-farm seed priming in the high barind tract of Bangladesh. Exp Agric 37:509–521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Naseem SB, Khan AH, Islam M, Mollah U, Ali MA (1997) Effect of seeding methods and varying surface soil moisture on the stand establishment of mungbean (Vigna radiata L.). Bang J Sci Indus Res 32:295–301Google Scholar
  89. Nawaz J, Hussain M, Jabbar A, Nadeem GA, Sajid M, Subtain MU, Shabbir I (2013) Seed priming: a technique. Int J Agric Crop Sci 6(20):1373–1381Google Scholar
  90. Nayban G, Mandal AK, De BK (2017) Seed priming: a low-cost climate-resilient tool for improving germination, growth and productivity of mungbean. SATSA Mukhapatra-Ann Tech Issue 21:162–172Google Scholar
  91. Nazari M, Eteghadipour M (2017) Impacts of ultrasonic waves on seeds: a mini-review. Agric Res Tech Open Access J 6(3):5. Scholar
  92. Nazari M, Sharififar A, Asghari HR (2014) Medicago scutellata seed dormancy breaking by ultrasonic waves. Plant Breed Seed Sci 69(1):15–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Padgham J (2009) Agricultural development under a changing climate: opportunities and challenges for adaptation. Joint departmental discussion paper- Issue 1. Agriculture and Rural Development & Environment Departments. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, The World Bank, 1818 H Street, NW Washington, DC 20433, 169Google Scholar
  94. Parera CA, Cantliffe DJ (1992) Enhanced emergence seedling vigor in shrunken-2 sweet corn via seed disinfection and solid matrix priming. J Am Hortic Sci 117:400–403Google Scholar
  95. Parera CA, Cantliffe DJ (1994) Presowing seed priming. Hortic Rev 16:109–141Google Scholar
  96. Passam HC, Kakouriotis D (1994) The effect of osmoconditioning on the germination, emergence and early plant growth of cucumber under saline conditions. Sci Hortic 57:233–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Patade VY, Maya K, Zakwan A (2011) Seed priming mediated germination improvement and tolerance to subsequent exposure to cold and salt stress in capsicum. Res J Seed Sci 4(3):125–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Pill WG, Necker AD (2001) The effects of seed treatments on germination and establishment of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratense L.). Seed Sci Technol 29:65–72Google Scholar
  99. Pradhan V, Rai PK, Bara BM, Srivastava DK (2017) Influence of halopriming and organic priming on germination and seed vigour in blackgram (Vigna mungo L.) seeds. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 6(4):537–540Google Scholar
  100. Rafiq S, Iqbal T, Hameed A, Rafiq ZA, Rafiq N (2006) Morphobiochemical analysis of salinity stress response of wheat. Pak J Bot 38:1759–1767Google Scholar
  101. Rahmianna AA, Adisarwanto T, Kirchhof G, So HB (2000) Crop establishment of legumes in rainfed lowland rice-based cropping system. Soil Tillage Res 56:67–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Rajandran P (1982) Effect of chemical infusion of seeds on storability, field performance and quality of the resultant seed in redgram. M. Sc. Thesis, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  103. Rajendra Prasad S, Kamble UR, Sripathy KV, Bhaskar KU, Singh DP (2017) Seed bio-priming for biotic and abiotic stress management. In: Singh D, Singh H, Prabha R (eds) Microbial inoculants in sustainable agricultural productivity. Springer, New Delhi, pp 211–228. Scholar
  104. Rakshit A, Pal S, Rai S, Rai A, Bhowmick MK, Singh HB (2013) Micronutrient seed priming: a potential tool in integrated nutrient management. SATSA Mukhapatra-Ann Tech Issue 17:77–89Google Scholar
  105. Rakshit A, Pal S, Meena S, Manjhee B, Preetipriya RS, Rai A, Bhowmick MK, Singh HB (2014) Seed bio-priming: a potential tool in integrated resource management. SATSA Mukhapatra-Ann Tech Issue 18:94–103Google Scholar
  106. Rakshit A, Singh HB, Abhijit S (2015) XXIII, 417 p. 56 illus., 38 illus. in color. Springer-Verlag GmbH, Berlin. ISBN:978-81-322-2169-2Google Scholar
  107. Rashid A, Harris D, Hollington P, Ali S (2004) On-farm seed priming reduces yield losses of mungbean (Vigna radiata) associated with mungbean yellow mosaic virus in NWFP of Pakistan. Crop Prot 23:1119–1124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Rautaray SK (2008) Productivity and economics of rice based utera crops for lower Assam. J Food Legum 21:51–52Google Scholar
  109. Riedell WE, Khoo U, Inglett GE (1985) Effect of bio regulators on soybean leaf structure and chlorophyll retention. In: Plant growth regulation, Lake Alfred Florida. Lake Alfred, pp 204–212Google Scholar
  110. Rogis C, Gibson LR, Knapp AD, Horton R (2004) Can solid matrix priming with GA3 break seed dormancy in eastern gamagrass? J Range Manag 57:656–660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Rowse HR (1996) Drum priming – a non-osmotic method of priming seeds. Seed Sci Technol 24:281–294Google Scholar
  112. Saglam S, Day S, Kaya G, Gurbuz A (2010) Hydro-priming increases germination of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik) under water stress. Notulae Scientia Biologicae 2(2):103–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Sajjan AS, Dhanelappagol MS, Jolli RB (2017) Seed quality enhancement through seed priming in pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]. Legum Res 40(1):173–177Google Scholar
  114. Sallam HA (1999) Effect of some seed-soaking treatments on growth and chemical components on faba bean plants under saline conditions. Ann Agric Sci 44:159–171Google Scholar
  115. Sen SK, Mandal P (2016) Solid matrix priming with chitosan enhances seed germination and seedling invigoration in mung bean under salinity stress. J Cent Eur Agric 17(3):749–762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Sharififar A, Nazari M, Asghari HR (2015) Effect of ultrasonic waves on seed germination of Atriplex lentiformis, Cuminum cyminum, and Zygophyllum eurypterum. J Appl Res Med Aromat Plants 2(3):102–104Google Scholar
  117. Sharma KK, Singh US, Sharma P, Kumar A, Sharma L (2015) Seed treatments for sustainable agriculture-a review. J Appl Nat Sci 7(1):521–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Shivay YS, Singh U, Prasad R, Kaur R (2016) Agronomic interventions for micronutrient biofortification of pulses. Indian J Agron 61(4th IAC Special Issue):S161–S172Google Scholar
  119. Siddique KHM, Johansen C, Turner NC, Jeuffroy M-H, Hashem A, Sakar D, Gan Y, Alghamdi SS (2012) Innovations in agronomy for food legumes. A review. Agron Sustain Dev 32(1.), Springer/EDP Sciences/INRA):45–64. Scholar
  120. Singh MV (2007) Efficiency of seed treatment for ameliorating zinc deficiency in crops. In: Zinc crops 2007, improving crop production and human health, May 24–26, 2007, Istanbul, TurkeyGoogle Scholar
  121. Singh A, Dahiru R, Musa M, Haliru BS (2014) Effect of osmo-priming duration on germination, emergence, and early growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) in the Sudan Savanna Nigeria. Int J Agron 2014:4. 10.1155/2014/841238Google Scholar
  122. Singh H, Jassal RK, Kang JS, Sandhu SS, Kang H, Grewal K (2015a) Seed priming techniques in field crops – a review. Agric Rev 36(4):251–264Google Scholar
  123. Singh U, Praharaj CS, Shivay YS, Kumar L, Singh SS (2015b) Ferti-fortification: an agronomic approach for micronutrient enrichment of pulses. In: Dixit GP, Singh J, Singh NP (eds) Pulses: challenges and opportunities under changing climatic scenario, In: Proceedings of the national conference on “Pulses: challenges and opportunities under changing climatic scenario”, 29 Sept–01 Oct 2014, JNKVV, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh. Indian Society of Pulses Research and Development. ICAR-Indian Institute of Pulses Research, Kanpur, pp 208–222Google Scholar
  124. Singh NP, Praharaj CS, Sandhu JS (2016) Utilizing untapped potential of rice fallow of East and North-east India through pulse production. Indian J Genet 76(4):388–398. Scholar
  125. Sivasubramaniam K, Geetha R, Sujatha K, Raja K, Sripunitha A, Selvarani R (2011) Seed priming: triumphs and tribulations. Madras Agric J 98(7–9):197–209Google Scholar
  126. Slaton NA, Wilson CR Jr, Natanatngiro S, Norman JR, Boothe LD (2001) Evaluation of Zn seed treatments for rice. Agron J 93:152–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Solaimalai A, Subburamu K (2004) Seed hardening for field crops – a review. Agric Rev 25:129–140Google Scholar
  128. Sujatha K, Sivasubramaniam K, Padma J, Selvarani K (2013) Seed hardening. Int J Agric Sci 9(1):392–412Google Scholar
  129. Swarnkar VK, Khajanji SN, Upadhyay N (2012) Effective utilization of rice fallows and rice bunds for cultivation of rabi pulses. In: Training manual, model training course on “Production techniques in rabi pulses”, 9–16 Jan 2012, Directorate of Extension Services, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidhyalaya, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India, pp 62–67Google Scholar
  130. Taylor AG, Harman GE (1990) Concepts and technologies of selected seed treatments. Phytopathology 28:312–339Google Scholar
  131. Taylor AG, Klein DE, Whitlow TH (1988) SMP: solid matrix priming of seeds. Sci Hortic 37(1–2):1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Taylor AG, Allen PS, Bennett MA, Bradford KJ, Burns JS, Misra MK (1998) Seed enhancements. Seed Sci Res 8:245–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Tiwari AK, Shivhare AK (2016) Pulses in India: retrospect and prospects. Publication no. DPD/Pub.1/Vol. 2/2016. Government of India, Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare (Department of Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers Welfare), Directorate of Pulses Development, Vindhyachal Bhavan, Bhopal, 316Google Scholar
  134. Uddin MJ, Ali MO, Rahman MM (2005) Prospects of chickpea in rice-based cropping systems in Bangladesh. In: Pande S, Stevenson PC, Neupane RK, Grzywacz D (eds) Policy and strategy for increasing income and food security through improved crop management of chickpea in rice fallows in Asia, Summary of a NARC-ICRISAT-NRI workshop, Nov 17–18, 2004, Kathmandu, Nepal. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru, pp 35–46Google Scholar
  135. Umair A, Ali S, Hayat R, Ansar M, Tareen MJ (2011) Evaluation of seed priming in mungbean (Vigna radiata) for yield, nodulation and biological nitrogen fixation under rainfed conditions. Afr J Biotechnol 10(79):18122–18129Google Scholar
  136. Umair A, Ali S, Sarwar M, Bashir K, Tareen MJ, Malik MA (2013) Assessment of some priming techniques in mungbean (Vigna radiata): a greenhouse study. Pak J Agric Res 26(4):265–274Google Scholar
  137. Urkurkar JS (2012) Technology transfer strategies for enhancing rabi pulse production in Chhattisgarh. In: Training manual, model training course on “Production techniques in rabi pulses”, Jan 09–16, 2012, Directorate of Extension Services, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidhyalaya, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India, pp 11–13Google Scholar
  138. Varier A, Vari AK, Dadlani M (2010) The subcellular basis of seed priming. Curr Sci 99(4):450–456Google Scholar
  139. Vishwas S, Chaurasia AK, Bara BM, Debnath A, Parihar NN, Brunda K, Saxena R (2017) Effect of priming on germination and seedling establishment of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seeds. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 6(4):72–74Google Scholar
  140. Wang HY, Chen CL, Sung JM (2003) Both warm water soaking matriconditioning treatments enhance anti-oxidation of bitter gourd seeds germinated at suboptimal temperature. Seed Sci Technol 31:47–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Yucel DO (2012) The effect of different priming treatments and germination temperatures on germination performance of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik) seeds. ARPN J Agric Biol Sci 7(12):977–981Google Scholar
  142. Zhou YG, Yang YD, Qi YG, Zhang ZM, Wang XJ, Hu XJ (2002) Effects of chitosan on some physiological activity in germinating seed of peanut. J Peanut Sci 31:22–25Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Malay K. Bhowmick
    • 1
  1. 1.Rice Research Station (Government of West Bengal)ChinsurahIndia

Personalised recommendations