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Role of Mineral Nutrients in Plant Growth Under Extreme Temperatures

  • Usman Khalil
  • Shafaqat Ali
  • Muhammad Rizwan
  • Khalil Ur Rahman
  • Syed Tahir Ata-Ul-Karim
  • Ullah Najeeb
  • Mirza Nadeem Ahmad
  • Muhammad Adrees
  • M. Sarwar
  • Syed Makhdoom Hussain
Chapter

Abstract

Food productivity is decreasing with the drastic increase in population, while it is expected that the global population will be nine to ten billion in 2050. Growth, production, and development on whole plant, cell, and subcellular levels are extremely affected by environmental factors particularly with the extreme temperature events (high- or low-temperature stress). Increase in the fluidity of lipid membrane, protein accumulation, and denaturation are the direct effects of high temperature on a plant. Membrane integrity loss, protein deprivation, protein synthesis inhabitation, and inactivation of mitochondrial and chloroplast enzymes are the indirect effects of high temperature. Similarly, the oval abortion, alteration of the pollen tube, reduction in fruit set, pollen sterility, and flower abscission are the consequences of low temperature at the time of product development, which in turn lowers the yield. The judicious nutrient management is essential for improving the plant nutrition status to mitigate the drastic effects of temperature stress as well as for sustainable plant yield under extreme temperature events, because nutrient deficiency results in growth and development problems in 60% cultivars worldwide. Additionally, effective nutrient management increases the temperature stress tolerance in plants. Therefore, the appropriate nutrient application rates and timings are imperative for alleviating the heat stress in plants and can serve as an effective and decent strategy. To minimize the contrasting effects of the environmental stresses, particularly heat stress, several examples of the supplemental applications of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Se, and Zn are given in detail in this study, to observe how these nutrients reduce the effects of temperature stress in plants. This study concluded that judicious nutrient management minimizes the heat stress and increases the growth and yield of plants.

Keywords

Environmental stress Heat stress Macronutrients Micronutrients Mechanisms 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Usman Khalil
    • 1
  • Shafaqat Ali
    • 1
    • 2
  • Muhammad Rizwan
    • 1
  • Khalil Ur Rahman
    • 3
  • Syed Tahir Ata-Ul-Karim
    • 4
  • Ullah Najeeb
    • 5
  • Mirza Nadeem Ahmad
    • 6
  • Muhammad Adrees
    • 1
  • M. Sarwar
    • 7
  • Syed Makhdoom Hussain
    • 8
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Sciences and EngineeringGovernment College UniversityFaisalabadPakistan
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution RemediationInstitute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of SciencesNanjingChina
  3. 3.Department of BiochemistryUniversity of Agriculture FaisalabadFaisalabadPakistan
  4. 4.Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution RemediationInstitute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of SciencesNanjingChina
  5. 5.Plant Breeding Institute, Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, School of Life and Environmental SciencesThe University of SydneySydneyAustralia
  6. 6.Department of Applied ChemistryGovernment College UniversityFaisalabadPakistan
  7. 7.Agronomic Research Institute, Ayub Agricultural Research InstituteFaisalabadPakistan
  8. 8.Department of ZoologyGovernment College UniversityFaisalabadPakistan

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