Urban Drought pp 289-309 | Cite as

Soil Sealing and Depletion of Groundwater in Rapidly Growing Peshawar City District, Pakistan

  • Atta-ur RahmanEmail author
  • Attaullah Khan
  • Noorul Haq
  • Samiullah
  • Rajib Shaw
Part of the Disaster Risk Reduction book series (DRR)


The aim of this chapter is to explore the trend of soil sealing and its impact on water infiltration and loss of groundwater potential in Peshawar City District, Pakistan. The impacts of soil sealing on groundwater are a challenging research area, and this research will help in exploring the relationship between soil sealing by rapid urban growth and expansion and the resultant depletion of groundwater sources. In the study area, rapid population growth and urban expansion have engulfed agricultural land and the subsequent infrastructural development has caused soil sealing. Such human interventions have produced problems with rise in urban temperature, accelerated surface runoff, reduced fertile farmland, and largely halted percolation and infiltration. The direct and indirect impacts of soil sealing on human life and environs have also been highlighted in this chapter. This study is based on both primary and secondary data sources. Data pertaining to urban expansion has been acquired from the published sources as well as temporal Spot images of the past three decades. Similarly, soil sealing and its trend prediction for the year 2030 were calculated. Groundwater data for the entire district has been collected from Public Health Engineering Department, Peshawar. Field survey was conducted to explore the current status of water table and depleting groundwater sources. Population data has been compiled from district census reports and statistical profiles. The analysis reveals that rapid population growth has increased the abstraction of groundwater and the potential of these freshwater sources has been threatened.


Soil sealing Groundwater Water table Infiltration GIS Remote sensing Land use/land cover changes Urbanization 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Atta-ur Rahman
    • 1
    Email author
  • Attaullah Khan
    • 2
  • Noorul Haq
    • 1
  • Samiullah
    • 1
  • Rajib Shaw
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of GeographyUniversity of PeshawarPeshawarPakistan
  2. 2.Department of GeographyGovernment College Lund KhwarMardanPakistan
  3. 3.Graduate School of Media and GovernanceKeio UniversityFujisawaJapan

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