Greco-Roman Realities as Perennials: The Law, the Righteousness, and the Irrepressible Questioning

  • Orlando Nang Kwok Ho


“The law” was a potent and domineering idea of the Greco-Romans. Interestingly, the law as a concept is somehow in universal presence in curriculums, on any topic and any subject, across time and tradition. Taking socialisation as tacit form of education, the personal epistemic schemas and life scripts discussed in last chapter were all personalised functions of “the law” that was appealing to the individuals. Hence, insofar as The Epistle is responding to the lived phenomenological worlds of its recipients, it as a curriculum must somehow narrate, postulate, and present some principles or understandings of “the law”. Thus, as to unfold below, The Epistle is to construct a concept-based and enquiry-driven curriculum (Erickson and Lanning 2014, pp. 95–103), revolving around this big concept in human civilisation regarding “the law” (Ho 2010, 2013, pp. 330 & 548). Hence, it will be an oversimplification to restrict “the law” in The Epistle to mean only Jewish commandments or Jewish religious regulations and practices.


  1. Aldridge, D. (2015). A hermeneutics of religious education. London: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
  2. Bailey, C. (Ed.). (1923). The legacy of Rome. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  3. Beauchamp, G. (1975). Curriculum theory. Wilmette: The Kagg Press.Google Scholar
  4. Besley, T., & Peters, M. (Eds.). (2012). Interculturalism: Education and dialogue. New York: Peter Lang Publishing, Inc.Google Scholar
  5. Brague, R. (2007). The Greek idea of divine law (L. Cochrane, Trans.) In The law of god: The philosophical history of an idea (pp. 19–29). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  6. Christ, K. (1984). The Romans: An introduction to their history and civilisation (H. Christopher, Trans.). London: Chatto & Windus, the Hogarth Press.Google Scholar
  7. Cicero, M. (1958). Pro Caelio; De provinciis consularibus; Pro Balbo (R. Gardner, Trans.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Conscience in World Religions. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.Google Scholar
  9. Cooper, J., & Procopé, J. (Eds.). (1995). General introduction. In Seneca: Moral and political essays (J. Cooper, & J. Procopé, Trans.) (pp. xi–xxii). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Costigane, H. (1999). A history of the western idea of conscience. In J. Hoose (Ed.), Conscience in world religions (pp. 6–10). Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.Google Scholar
  11. De Unamuno, M. (1954). Tragic sense of life (J. Flitch, Trans.). New York: Dover.Google Scholar
  12. Dihle, A. (2008). City and empire. In F. Mutschler & A. Mittag (Eds.), Conceiving the empire: China and Rome compared (pp. 5–28). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Drewery, W., & Winslade, J. (1997). The theoretical story of narrative therapy. In G. Monk et al. (Eds.), Narrative therapy in practice: The archaeology of hope (pp. 32–52). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.Google Scholar
  14. Du, B. R.杜保瑞. (2013). Zhong guo zhe xue fang fa luan. 中國哲學方法論. Taipei: Shangwu.Google Scholar
  15. Eden, K. (1997). Hermeneutics and ancient rhetoric. In Hermeneutics and the rhetorical tradition: Chapters in the ancient legacy & its humanist reception (pp. 7–19). New Haven/London: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Eisner, E. (2005). The primacy of experience and the politics of method. In Reimagining schools: The selected works of Elliot W. Eisner (pp. 112–122). London/New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Eliade, M. (1978). A history of religious ideas, Vol. 1, From stone age to the Eleusinian mysteries (W. Trask, Trans.). Chicago: Chicago University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Encyclopedia Britannica. (2017). Orphic religion. Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Retrieved from
  19. Erickson, H., & Lanning, L. (2014). Transitioning to concept-based curriculum and instruction: How to bring concept and process together. London: Corwin.Google Scholar
  20. Feucht, F. (2011). The epistemic underpinnings of Mrs. M’s reading lesson on drawing conclusions: A classroom-based research study. In J. Brownlee, G. Schraw, & D. Berthelsen (Eds.), Personal epistemology and teacher education (pp. 227–245). New York/London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  21. Freeman, C. (2009). A.D. 381: Heretics, Pagans, and the Dawn of the Monotheistic State. New York: The Overlook Press.Google Scholar
  22. Fromm, E. (1995). The essential Fromm: Life between having and being (L. Garmer, Trans.). New York: Continuum Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  23. Gallagher, S. (1992). Hermeneutics and education. New York: State University of New York.Google Scholar
  24. Garnsey, P. (2000). Introduction: The Hellenistic and Roman periods. In C. Rowe et al. (Eds.), The Cambridge history of Greek and Roman political thought (pp. 401–414). New York/Melbourne: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Goodman, M., & Sherwood, J. (1997). The Roman world: 44BC – AD180. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  26. Ho, O. (2010). How to render νόμος(nomos)of Romans into Chinese: An investigation on the interplays of textual traditions, translation paradigms and the Gospel Theory of Paul. China Graduate School of Theology Journal, 49, 45–72.Google Scholar
  27. Ho, O. (2013). Translation paradigms and a historic-critical reading of the Epistle to the Romans: Intercultural curriculum challenges on life and values education for contemporary Chinese-speaking adult Christians, Vols. 1 & 2. Doctoral dissertation. Hong Kong: The Hong Kong Institute of Education.Google Scholar
  28. Isbouts, J. (2016). Archaeology of the Bible: The greatest discoveries from Genesis to the Roman era. Washington, DC: National Geographic Partners, LLC.Google Scholar
  29. Kiewra, K. (2009). Teaching how to learn: The teacher's guide to student success. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.Google Scholar
  30. Livingstone, R. (Ed.). (1921). The legacy of Greece. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  31. Luttwak, E. (1976). The grand strategy of the Roman Empire: From the first century AD to the Third. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Månson, P. (2000). Max Weber. In H. Andersen, & L. Kaspersen (Eds.), Classical and modern social theory (pp. 75–95). Oxford/Malden: Blackwell Publishers, Inc.Google Scholar
  33. Mantzavinos, C. (2005). Naturalistic hermeneutics. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. McNeil, J. (2015). Contemporary curriculum in thought and action. Los Angeles: University of California.Google Scholar
  35. Meier, C. (2012). A culture of freedom: Ancient Greece and the origins of Europe. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Monk, G. (1997). How narrative therapy works? In G. Monk et al. (Eds.), Narrative therapy in practice: The archaeology of hope (pp. 3–31). Jossey-Bass Publishers: San Francisco.Google Scholar
  37. Murphy, P. (2008). Defining pedagogy. In K. Hall, P. Murphy, & J. Soler (Eds.), Pedagogy and practice: Culture and identities. London: SAGE.Google Scholar
  38. Nemo, P. (1998). Histoire des idées politiques dans l'antiquité et au Moyen âge. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.Google Scholar
  39. Niebuhr, R. (1941). The nature and destiny of man: A Christian interpretation. New York: C. Scribner's Sons.Google Scholar
  40. O’Grady, K., & Richards, P. (2009). Case study showing inclusion of spirituality in the therapeutic process. In J. Aten & M. Leach (Eds.), Spirituality and the therapeutic process (pp. 241–265). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  41. Palmer, D. (2002). Does the center hold? An Introduction to Western philosophy. Boston: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  42. Patton, K. (2009). Religion of the gods: Ritual, paracox, and reflexivity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Plato. (1997). Laws (T. Saunders, Trans.). In J. Cooper, & D. Hutchinson (Eds.), Plato’s complete works (pp. 1318–1616). Indianapolis/Cambridge: Hackett Publishing.Google Scholar
  44. Reid, W. (1999a). Practical reasoning and curriculum decision. In Curriculum as institution and practice: Essays in the deliberative tradition (pp. 16–40). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.Google Scholar
  45. Reid, W. (1999b). The idea of the practical. In Curriculum as institution and practice: Essays in the deliberative tradition (pp. 7–15). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.Google Scholar
  46. Reid, W. (1999c). The method of the practical. In Curriculum as institution and practice: Essays in the deliberative tradition (pp. 41–49). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.Google Scholar
  47. Riggsby, A. (2010). Roman law and the legal world of the Romans. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Rikowski, G. (1999). Education, capital and the transhuman. In D. Hill et al. (Eds.), Postmodernism in education theory: Education and the politics of human resistance (pp. 50–84). London: The Tufnell Press.Google Scholar
  49. Ritskes, E. (2011). Connected: Indigenous spirituality as resistance in the classroom. In N. Wane, E. Manyimo, & E. Ritskes (Eds.), Spirituality, education & society: An integrated approach (pp. 15–36). Rotterdam/Boston/Taipei: Sense Publishers.Google Scholar
  50. Round, N. (1991). Cartagena and Calvin on Seneca’s De dementia. In M. Osler (Ed.), Atoms, pneuma, and tranquility: Epicurean and Stoic themes in European thought (pp. 67–88). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Rüpke, J. (2001). Religion of the Romans (R. Gordon, Trans.). Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  52. Schiro, M. (2013). Curriculum theory: Conflicting visions and enduring concerns. London: SAGE.Google Scholar
  53. Schraw, G., Olafson, L., & Vanderveldt, M. (2011). Fostering critical awareness of teachers’ epistemological and ontological beliefs. In J. Brownlee, G. Schraw, & D. Berthelsen (Eds.), Personal epistemology and teacher education (pp. 149–164). New York; London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  54. Seddon, K. (2005). Epictetus. In P. O’Grady (Ed.), Meet the philosophers of ancient Greece (pp. 203–206). Hampshire: Ashgate Publishing.Google Scholar
  55. Smith, D. (1991). Hermeneutic inquiry: The hermeneutic imagination and the pedagogic text. In E. Short (Ed.), Forms of curriculum inquiry (pp. 187–210). Albany: State University of New York.Google Scholar
  56. Stalker, D. (1976). Deep structure. Philadelphia: University City Science Center.Google Scholar
  57. Tillema, H. (2011). Looking into mirrors: Teacher educator’s dilemmas in constructing pedagogical understanding about their teaching. In J. Brownlee, G. Schraw, & D. Berthelsen (Eds.), Personal epistemology and teacher education (pp. 40–53). New York/London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  58. Valanides, N., & Angeli, C. (2011). Personal epistemology and ill-defined problem solving in solo and duo contexts. In J. Brownlee, G. Schraw, & D. Berthelsen (Eds.), Personal epistemology and teacher education (pp. 195–209). New York/London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  59. Wang, X. Z. 王曉朝 (2007). Xi la zhe xue jian shi: cong he ma dao ao gu si ding. 希臘哲學簡史: 從荷馬到奧古斯丁. Shanghai: Sanlian.Google Scholar
  60. Willis, G. (1991). Phenomenological inquiry: Life-world perceptions. In E. Short (Ed.), Forms of curriculum inquiry (pp. 173–186). Albany: State University of New York.Google Scholar
  61. Yu, Y. (1983). Xi fang gu dian shi dai de ren wen jing shen. 西方古典時代的人文精神. In Li shi yu si xiang (pp. 285–304). 歷史與思想. Bejiing: Lian jing.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Orlando Nang Kwok Ho
    • 1
  1. 1.The Chartered Institute of LinguistsLondonUK

Personalised recommendations