Zanzibar: The HUL Approach Explored

  • Muhammad Juma
  • Michael Turner
Part of the Creativity, Heritage and the City book series (CHC, volume 2)


The Stone Town of Zanzibar has been a major case study for the development of the HUL recommendation providing a continuous interaction since 2009 when the drafting group met to validate the approach in the African context. The threats identified in the State of Conservation reporting and accompanying missions have required new approaches to resolving these issues. Together with support from outside funding and academic institutions, the wider context of cultural heritage inscription has been developed and integrated into the planning processes of the island. However, the integrated long-term planning approach changes have not been matched by the level of management needed to address short-term local development projects in a climate of urban poverty and unemployment. This paper traces the steps of these interactions and evaluates the effectiveness of the various stakeholders identified in the Historic Urban Landscape approach in achieving the targets of the Sustainable Development Goals and New Urban Agenda.


World heritage Historic urban landscape Zanzibar Ng’ambo Urban heritage Integrative development strategy Sustainable development goals New urban agenda 


  1. Ali, M. H., & Sulaiman, M. S. (2002). The making and contents of Zanzibar national land use plan: A brief account on a donor funded project. FIG XXII international congress – Urban regeneration and environment, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  2. Bakker, K. A., & Eloundou, L. A. (2008). Mission to the Stone Town of Zanzibar. Paris: UNESCO World Heritage Centre and ICOMOS.Google Scholar
  3. City of Regensburg. (2011). The road to success – Integrated management of historic towns guidebook (p. 83). Regensburg: City of Regensburg.Google Scholar
  4. Commission of Land and Environment. (1995). National land use plan: 1. Appraisal – Analysis of potentials and issues 2. Policies and proposals. Zanzibar: COLE.Google Scholar
  5. Directorate-General for Research and Innovation. (2005). Guidance for the environmental assessment of the impacts of certain plans, programmes or projects upon the heritage value of historical areas, in order to contribute to their long-term sustainability (Research report no. 16). Luxembourg: The Publications Office of the European Union.Google Scholar
  6. ICOMOS. (2011). Guidance on heritage impact assessments for cultural world heritage properties. Paris: ICOMOS.Google Scholar
  7. Lanchester, H. V. (1923). Zanzibar, a study in tropical town planning. Cheltenham: Ed. J. Burrow &, Ltd.Google Scholar
  8. Middleton, J. (1992). The world of the Swahili: An African Mercantile civilization. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Sheriff, A. (2010). Dhow cultures of the Indian Ocean – Cosmopolitanism, commerce and Islam. London: C. Hurst & Company.Google Scholar
  10. Siravo, F. (1996). A plan for the historic Stone Town. In Historic Cities Support Programme (Ed.), Zanzibar Stone Town projects (pp. 34–47). Geneva: Aga Khan Trust for Culture.Google Scholar
  11. Strandes, J. (1961). The Portuguese period in East Africa (J. Kirkman, Ed.). (J. F. Wallwork, Trans.). Nairobi: East African Literature Bureau.Google Scholar
  12. UNESCO. (2011). Recommendation on the historic urban landscape (p. 6). Recommendation. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  13. UNESCO Culture Sector. (2016). Culture urban future – Global report on culture for sustainable urban development (p. 304). Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  14. UNESCO, ICCROM, ICOMOS. (2014). Joint reactive monitoring mission to the Stone Town of Zanzibar. Paris: UNESCO World Heritage Centre.Google Scholar
  15. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. (2013). Swahili historic urban landscapes – Report on the HUL workshops and field activities on the Swahili Coast in East Africa 2011–2012 (p. 127). Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  16. United Nations Centre for Human Settlement. (1983). The Stone Town of Zanzibar: A strategy for an integrated approach. Nairobi: United Nations Centre for Human Settlement.Google Scholar
  17. Vroomen, Y., ten Hoope, D., Moor, B., Pereira-Roders, A., Veldpaus, L., & Colenbrander, B. (2012). Assessing the cultural significance of world heritage cities: Zanzibar as a case-study. 6th international seminar on measuring heritage conservation performance. CECI and ICCROM, pp. 67–74.Google Scholar
  18. World Tourism Organization. (1983). Zanzibar Tourism Development Plan. Madrid: World Tourism Organization.Google Scholar
  19. Zanzibar Government. (1958). Zanzibar Planning Scheme. Zanzibar.Google Scholar
  20. Zanzibar Government. (1968). Zanzibar Town Scheme. Zanzibar.Google Scholar
  21. Zanzibar Government. (1982). Zanzibar Master Plan. Zanzibar.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Juma
    • 1
  • Michael Turner
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Urban and Rural planningZanzibarTanzania
  2. 2.Bezalel Academy of Arts and DesignJerusalemIsrael

Personalised recommendations