Common Environmental Dermatomycoses

  • Nlandu Roger Ngatu


Environmental fungal skin disorders (EFSD) or dermatomycoses have a worldwide distribution, with high prevalence in most developing countries. Causal agents include dermatophytes and opportunistic fungi (Malassezia, Candida, Trichosporon, Rhodotorula, Cryptococcus or Aspergillus, Geotrichum, Alternaria, etc.). Besides their specific risk factors, common superficial dermatomycoses share common group of associated factors, such as “environmental and geographical factors” (climate, humidity), “human factors” (population mobility, personal hygiene, abusive use of antifungal drugs), and “economic factor” (poverty), which determine their distribution in regions of the world. Trichophyton interdigitale, T. tonsurans, and M. canis are getting more frequent globally. High prevalence rate of T. capitis has been reported in African children: 50–54% in rural Ethiopia, 11.2% in rural Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), 7.4% in Egypt, and 7.1% in Tanzania, whereas rates of 3–8% have been found in the United States. The clinical diagnosis of T. capitis is made in the presence of dry scaling-like dandruff, black dots on scalp, favus (yellow crusts, matted hair), and kerion. Tinea pedis is an environmental skin disorder of the toe web that is acquired either through a contact with infected skin or by a fungus in the environment. High prevalence of Tinea pedis has been reported in schoolchildren: 12% in the United Kingdom, 16.9% in Israel, 5.2% in Australia, and 7.8% in Peru. The diagnosis of superficial dermatomycoses can be confirmed by a dermoscopic examination or culture. Avoiding direct skin-to-skin contact with infected individual and improving personal hygiene are among measures that reduce the risk of contamination.


Dermatomycosis Pityriasis versicolor Tinea capitis Tinea pedis 

List of Abbreviations


Bar code-like hair


Coma hair


Corkscrew hair


Environmental fungal skin disease


Zigzag hair


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nlandu Roger Ngatu
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Graduate School of MedicineInternational University of Health and Welfare (IUHW)ChibaJapan
  2. 2.Graduate School of Public HealthInternational University of Health and Welfare (IUHW)TokyoJapan

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