Advertisement

Pests of Mango

  • Poluru Venkata Rami ReddyEmail author
  • B. Gundappa
  • A. K. Chakravarthy
Chapter

Abstract

Mango (Mangifera indica Linn.), an evergreen and widely cultivated fruit crop of tropical and subtropical regions, is attacked by about 400 insect and mite pests. However, only a few are of major economic importance. These include leafhoppers, stem borers, fruit flies, stone weevil, mealybugs, gall midges and others. Of them fruit flies and stone weevils are of quarantine importance and restrict the international trade of mangoes. Over the years, the pest complex of mango has undergone a sea-change, and select species have attained serious pest status from minor pest. For example, thrips, mites and blossom webbers have been emerging as potential threats to mango production in different parts of India. The pest distribution is also not uniform across the country with some species confining to specific zones. For instance, shoot gall psylla and giant mealybug are more common in the north compared to south India. Similarly, the red-banded caterpillar is restricted to eastern parts comprising coastal Andhra Pradesh, Odisha and parts of West Bengal. Domestic quarantine has a role to play in preventing further spread of these pests. Though the integrated pest management (IPM) modules are in place for some pests, insecticides still remain the preferred option for farmers in mango pest management. In order to have a residue-free produce and to protect the biodiversity of orchard ecosystems, it is crucial that workable management strategies are evolved.

Keywords

Bioecology Insect pests Mangifera indica Leafhoppers Fruit fly Pest management 

References

  1. Abbas SR, Verghese A, Fasih M (1985) Studies on the mango inflorescence midge, Erosomyia indica Grover. II Int Symp Mango 231:593–596Google Scholar
  2. Ahmad W, Nawaz MA, Saleem A, Asim M (2005) Incidence of mango midge and its control in mango growing countries of the world. II Int Conf Mango Date Palm 231:98–102Google Scholar
  3. Ahsan MF (1983) Incidence of the mango shoot-gall psyllid, Apsylla cistellata Buckton at Shibganj. Univ J Zool 2:61–68Google Scholar
  4. Alam SN (1994) Population dynamics, varietal reactions and microbial control of different species of mango leaf hoppers. MSc thesis, University of the Philippines, Los BanosGoogle Scholar
  5. Aliakbarpour H, CheSalmah MR (2010) Diurnal activity of four species of thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and efficiencies of three nondestructive sampling techniques for thrips in mango inflorescences. J Econ Entomol 103:631–640CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Aluja M (1994) Bionomics and management of Anastrepha. Annu Rev Entomol 39:155–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beria NN, Acharya MF, Kapadia MN (2008) Biology of mango leaf webber, Orthaga exvinacea. Annal Plant Prot Sci 16:218–219Google Scholar
  8. Bhole SD, Jadhav VS, Dumbre RB, Dalvi CS (1987) Seasonal incidence and chemical control of mango nursery pests in the Konkan region. J Maharashtra Agric Univ 12(3):387–388Google Scholar
  9. Bhumannavar BS (1991) Record of Citripestis eutraphera Meyrick (Pyralidae: Lepidoptera) on Mangifera indica in India. J Bombay Nat Hist Soc 88(2):299Google Scholar
  10. Bindra OS, Varma GC, Sandhu GS (1970) Studies on the relative efficacy of banding materials for the control of mango mealy bug, Drosicha stebbingi (Green). J Res Punjab Agric Univ 7(4):491–494Google Scholar
  11. Butani DK (1979) Insects and fruits. Periodical Expert Book Agency, DelhiGoogle Scholar
  12. Chahal BS, Singh D (1977) Bionomics and control of mango shoot borer, Chlumetia transversa Walk. (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera). Ind J Hort 34(2):188–192Google Scholar
  13. Cunningham I (1989) Pests. In: Bagshaw, Journal Mango Pests and Disorders (ed) Department of Primary Industries Information Series, Q189007, pp 10–21Google Scholar
  14. Das NM, Remamony KS, Nair MRGK (1969) Biology of a new jassid pest of mango. Amrasca splendens Ghauri. Ind J Entomol 31:288–290Google Scholar
  15. de Laroussilhe F (1980) Le Manguier. G.P. Masoneuve & Larose, ParisGoogle Scholar
  16. Devi Thangam S, Verghese A, Dinesh MR, Vasugi C, Kamala Jayanthi PD (2013) Germplasm evaluation of mango for preference of the mango hopper, Idioscopus nitidulus (Walker) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) :The first step in understanding the host plant resistance. Pest Manag Hort Ecosyst 19:10–16Google Scholar
  17. Fenner T (1997) Red-banded mango caterpillar: biology and control prospects. Northern Territory Department of Primary Industry and Fisheries, Darwin, 2 ppGoogle Scholar
  18. Fletcher T. B. (1914) Some South Indian insects and other animals of importance considered especially from an economic point of view. Printed by the superintendent, Government Press, Madras, 565 ppGoogle Scholar
  19. Follett PA (2002) Mango seed weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and premature fruit drop in mangoes. J Econ Entomol 95(2):336–339CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Grover P (1986) Integrated control of midge pests. Cecidol Int 7:1–28Google Scholar
  21. Gundappa, Shukla PK, Rajkumar B, Verma S, Misra AK (2014) Incidence of shoot gall psylla, Apsylla cistellata Buckton on mango in India. In World mango conference, Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan, p 72Google Scholar
  22. Hampson GF (1896) The Fauna of British India including Ceylon and Burma. Moths, Taylor and Francis, London, vol 4, pp 70–77,356Google Scholar
  23. Handa S (2006) Seasonal incidence of mango shoot borer in different cultivars of mango and efficacy of different insecticides and neem oil for its control. Agric Sci Dig 26(4):306–308Google Scholar
  24. Hansen JD, Armstrong JW, Brown S (1989) The distribution of the mango weevil, Cryptorhynchus mangiferae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Hawaii. Proc Hawaiian Entomol Soc 29:31–39Google Scholar
  25. Harris KM, Schreiner H (1992) A new species of the gall midge (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) attacking mango foliage in Guam, with observations on its pest status and biology. Bull Entomol Res 82:41–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Haseeb M, Srivastava RP (2003) Field evaluation of entomogenous fungus, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. against mango mealy bug, Drosicha mangiferae Green. J Ecophysiol Occup Health 3(3):253–258Google Scholar
  27. Higgins CJ (1992) Western flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in greenhouses: population dynamics, distribution on plants and association with predators. J Econ Entomol 85:1891–1903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Jacob TK, Veenakumari K, Bhumannavar BS (2004) Insect pests of cashew in the Andaman Islands. Cashew 18(4):25–28Google Scholar
  29. Jayanthi PDK, Verghese A, Shashank PR, Kempraj V (2014a) Spread of indigenous restricted fruit borer, Citripestis eutraphera (Meyrick) (Pyralidae: Lepidoptera) in mango-time for domestic quarantine regulatory reforms. Pest Manag Hort Ecosyst 20(2):227–230Google Scholar
  30. Jayanthi PDK, Verghese A, Arthikruba A, Sowmya BR, Bhatt RM (2014b) Emerging pests of mango under changing climate scenario, Technical bulletin no. 18. Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, BengaluruGoogle Scholar
  31. Jothi DB, Tandon PL, Verghese A (1994) Hot water immersion as a quarantine treatment for Indian mangoes infested with the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera : Tephritidae). FAO. Plant Prot Bull 42(3):158–159Google Scholar
  32. Kalshoven LGE (1981) The pests of crops in Indonesia. PT IchtiarBaru – Van Hoeve, Jakarta, 701 ppGoogle Scholar
  33. Kapoor VC (2005) Taxonomy and biology of Indian fruit flies. Isr J Entomol 35-36:459–475Google Scholar
  34. Karar H, Arif MJ, Sayyed HA, Ashfaq M, Khan MA (2010) Comparative efficacy of new and old insecticides for the control of mango mealy bug (Drosicha mangiferae) in mango orchards. Int J Agric Biol 12(3):443–446Google Scholar
  35. Karar H, Arif MJ, Ali A, Hameed A, Abbas G, Abbas Q (2012) Assessment of yield losses and impact of morphological markers of various mango (Mangiferae indica) genotypes on mango mealybug (Drosicha mangiferae Green) (Homoptera: Margarodidae). Pak J Zool 44(6):1643–1651Google Scholar
  36. Kavitha K, Lakshmi KV, Anitha V (2005) Mango leaf webber Orthaga euadrusalis Walker (Pyralidae: Lepidoptera) in Andhra Pradesh. Insect Environ 11:39–40Google Scholar
  37. Krishnamoorthy A, Reddy PVR, Verghese A (2014) Borer pests: status and challenges. Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bengaluru, pp 14–15Google Scholar
  38. Krull SME (2004) Studies on the mango-ecosystem in Papua New Guinea with special reference to the ecology of Deanolis sublimbalis Snellen (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and to the biological control of Ceroplastes rubens Maskell (Homoptera, Coccidae). PhD thesis, Justus-Liebig-UniversitatGieben, 190 ppGoogle Scholar
  39. Lewis T (1973) Thrips, their biology, ecology and economic importance. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  40. Mani M (2016) Fruit crops: mango. In: Mani M, Shivaraju C (eds) Mealy bugs and their management in agricultural and horticultural crops. Springer, New Delhi, p 385Google Scholar
  41. Mani M, Krishnamoorthy A, Pattar GL (1995) Biological control of the mango mealybug, Rastrococcus iceryoides (Green) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Pest Manag Hortic Ecosyst 1(1):15–20Google Scholar
  42. Masood A, Saeed S, Sajjad A, Ali M (2009) Life cycle and biology of mango bark beetle, Hypocryphalus mangifera Stebbing: as a possible vector of sudden death disease of mango in Pakistan. Pak J Zool 14:281–288Google Scholar
  43. Mukherjee SK (1997) Introduction: botany and importance. In: Litz RE (ed) The mango: botany, production and uses. CAB International, Wallingford, pp 1–19Google Scholar
  44. Nachiappan RM, Bhaskaran R (1983) Biochemical constitution of inflorescence of certain varieties of mango in relation to mango leafhoppers. South Ind Hortic 31:160–165Google Scholar
  45. Ochoa R, Aguilar H, Vargas, C (1994) Phytophagous mites of Central America: an illustrated guide. Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza, Technical series 6. Turrialba, Costa RicaGoogle Scholar
  46. Palaniswamy MS, Sundra PC, Babu, Subramanian TR (1979) Studies on the biology of mango stem borer, Batocera rufomaculata De Geer (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). South Ind Hort 27(3–4):100–106Google Scholar
  47. Patel AK, Patel SR, Shah AH (1973) Studies on sex ratio, longevity and seasonal incidence of mango leafhopper, Amritodus atkinsoni in South Gujarat. Ind J Entomol 37:150–153Google Scholar
  48. Pena JE (1993) Pests of mango in Florida. Acta Hortic (341):395–406Google Scholar
  49. Peña JE (2002) Integrated pest management and monitoring techniques for mango pests. VII Int Mango Symp 645:151–161Google Scholar
  50. Pena JE, Mohyuddin AI, Wysoki M (1998) A review of the pest management situation in mango agroecosystems. Phytoparasitica 26:129–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Pena JE, Sharp JL, Wysoki M (2002) Tropical fruit pests and pollinators: biology, economic importance, natural enemies and control. CABI Publishing, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rajapakse RHS, Kulasekera VL (1982) Some observations on insect pests of cinnamon in Sri Lanka. Entomon 7(2):221–223Google Scholar
  53. Rawat RR, Jakhmola SS (1970) Bionomics of the mango-Coccid (Rastrococcus iceryoides Green; Homoptera: Coccidae). Ind J Agric Sci 40(2):140–144Google Scholar
  54. Reddy PVR, Dinesh MR (2005) Evaluation of mango exotic collections for resistance to hopper, Idioscopus niveosparsus Lethierry India. J Plant Gen Res 18(1):69–70Google Scholar
  55. Reddy PVR, Chakravarthy AK, Sudhagar S, Kurian R (2014) A simple technique to capture, contain and monitor the fresh-emerging beetles of tree borers. Curr Biotica 8(2):191–194Google Scholar
  56. Reddy PVR, VarunRajan V, Thangam D, Chakravarthy AK (2015) Stem borers in mango: species diversity and damage patterns. 4th congress on insect science, PAU Ludhiana, 16–17 April 2015, pp 150–151Google Scholar
  57. Sengupta GC, Behura BK (1955) Some new records of crop pests from India. Ind J Entomol 17:283–285Google Scholar
  58. Shivananda TN, Verghese A, Hegde RM, Kumar NKK, Singh AS (2012) Management of mango trunk borers using sealer cum healer. Technical bulletin no. 72/12, IIHR, BangaloreGoogle Scholar
  59. Shukla RP, Tandon PL (1985) Bio-ecology and management of the mango weevil, Sternochetus mangiferae (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Int J Trop Agric 3:293303Google Scholar
  60. Singh SM (1959) Studies on mango shoot gall psyllid, Apsylla cistellata Buck. I. Descriptions of developmental stages and biology and habits. Ind J Entomol 21:273–281Google Scholar
  61. Singh SM (1960) Studies on mango shoot gall in Tarai region of UP. Its causes and control. II distribution, nature, extent, intensity of damage and binomics of the pest. Hortic Adv (Hortic Res Inst Saharanpur) 4:97–114Google Scholar
  62. Singh G (2000) Physiology of shoot gall formation and its relationship with juvenility and flowering in mango. VI Int Symp Mango (509):803–810Google Scholar
  63. Singh G (2003) Mango shoot gall: its causal organism and control measures. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, 94 ppGoogle Scholar
  64. Singh HS, Kishore K (2014) Status and strategies for red banded mango caterpillar, Deanolis albizonalis (Hampson) – an emerging pest of in eastern India. J Appl Zool Res 25(1):11–20Google Scholar
  65. Singh G, Misra PN (1978) The mango shoot gall psyllid Apsylla cistellata Buckton and its control. Pesticides 12:15–16Google Scholar
  66. Singh J, Mukherjee IN (1989) Pest status of phytophagous mites in some northern states of India. In: Proceedings of the first Asia-Pacific conference of entomology. Chiang Mai, Thailand, pp 192–203Google Scholar
  67. Singh G, Kumar A, Everrett TR (1975) Biological observations and control of Apsylla cistellata Buckton (Psyllidae: Homoptera). Ind J Entomol 37:46–50Google Scholar
  68. Srivastava RP (1980) Efficacy of Alkathene bands to prevent ascent of mango mealy bug nymphs on mango trees. Ind J Entomol 42(1):122–129Google Scholar
  69. Srivastava RP (1997) Mango insect pest management (No. Ed. 1). International Book Distributing Co, LucknowGoogle Scholar
  70. Srivastava RP, Tandon PL, Verghese A (1982) Evaluation of insecticides for the control of mango shoot gall psyla, Apsylla cistelata (Buckton) (Psyllidae, Homoptera). Entomon 1:281–284Google Scholar
  71. Sujatha A, Zaheeruddin SM (2002) Biology of pyralid fruit borer, Deanolis abizonalis: a new pest of mango. J Appl Zool Res 13:1–5Google Scholar
  72. Tandon PL (1995) Integrated insect pest management in mango. In Proceedings national symposium on integrated pest management and environment organized by Plant Protection Association of India and FAO at Madras, 2–4 February 1995Google Scholar
  73. Tandon PL, Lal B (1978) The mango coccid, Rastrococcus iceryoides (Green) (Homoptera:Coccidae) and its natural enemies. Curr Sci 47:467–468Google Scholar
  74. Tandon PL, Verghese A (1985) World list of insect, mite and other pests of mango, Technical document, vol 5. Indian Instistute of Horticultural Research, BangaloreGoogle Scholar
  75. Tandon PL, Verghese A (1987) New insect pests of certain fruit crops. Ind J Hortic 44:120–121Google Scholar
  76. Tandon PL, Lal B, Rao GSP (1983) Prediction of mangohopper Idioscopus clypealis (Leth.) population in relation to physical environmental factors. Entomon 8:257–261Google Scholar
  77. Upadhyay SK, Chaudhary B, Sapkota B (2013) Integrated management of mango stem borer (Batocera rufomaculata Dejan) in Nepal. Glob J Biol Agric Health Sci 2(4):132–135Google Scholar
  78. Veeresh GK (1989) Pest problems in mango – world situation. Acta Hortic (231):551–565Google Scholar
  79. Verghese A (2000) Status and management of the mango stone weevil Sternochetus mangiferae (Fab.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in India. Pest Manag Hort Ecosyst 6(1):15–21Google Scholar
  80. Verghese A, Devi Thangam S (2011) Mango hoppers and their management. Extension folder no: 71-11, ATIC series: 31-11. Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, BangaloreGoogle Scholar
  81. Verghese A, Tandon PL, Rao GSP (1988) Spatial distribution pattern and sampling plan for the blister midge, Erosomyia indica Grover (Cecidomyiidae: Diptera) in India. Insect Sci Appl 9(4):515–518Google Scholar
  82. Verghese A, Nagaraju DK, Kamala Jayanthi PD, Madhura HS (2005) Association of mango stone weevil, Sternochetus mangiferae (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) with fruit drop in mango. Crop Prot 24:479–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Verghese A, Uma S, Jayanthi PD, Mouly R, Helen M (2011) Evidence of a random ovipositional strategy by female fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Tephritidae: Diptera) with reference to host quantum. Curr Sci 100(2):246–248Google Scholar
  84. Verghese A, Shivananda TN, Jayanthi PDK (2014) Integrated Pest Management (IPM) of mango fruit fly, Bactrocera spp. IIHR extension folder. Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, BengaluruGoogle Scholar
  85. Verma R, Singh S (2010) Seasonal activity of mango leaf webber, Orthaga eudrasalis walker. Insect Environ 16(1):22Google Scholar
  86. Viraktamath S, Viraktamath CA (1985) New species of Busoniomimus and Idioscopus (Homoptera: Cicadellidae: Idiocerinae) breeding on mango in south India. Entomon 10:305–311Google Scholar
  87. Waite GK (2002) Pests and pollinators of mango. In: Pena JE (ed) Tropical fruit pests and pollinators: economic importance, natural enemies and control. CABI Publishers, Wallingford, p 103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Waterhouse DF (1998) Deanolis sublimbalis (chapter 4.6) in biological control of insect pests: South-East Asian prospects, ACIAR monograph No. 51. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra. 548 ppGoogle Scholar
  89. Wysoki M, Ben-Dov Y, Swirski E, Izhar Y (1993) The arthropod pests of mango in Israel. Acta Hortic (341):452–466Google Scholar
  90. Yadav JL, Singh SP, Kumar R (2004) The population dynamics of the mango mealy bug (Drosicha mangiferae G.) in mango. Progress Agric 4(1):35–37Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Poluru Venkata Rami Reddy
    • 1
    Email author
  • B. Gundappa
    • 2
  • A. K. Chakravarthy
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Entomology and NematologyICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural ResearchBengaluruIndia
  2. 2.ICAR-Central Institute for Subtropical HorticultureLucknowIndia

Personalised recommendations