Surgical Anatomy and Physiology of the Nose

  • Man Koon Suh


As a three-dimensional structure, the nose is not only a central component of facial aesthetics but also a vital functional organ that facilitates respiration and olfaction. The external appearance and anatomical structure of the nose can vary considerably across ethnicities and individuals. Because the purpose of rhinoplasty is to alter the nose to a desired shape, the understanding of the underlying anatomy is of utmost importance.

Further Reading

  1. 1.
    Guyuron B. Footplates of the medial crura. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1998;101(5):1359–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sheen JH, Sheen AP. Aesthetic rhinoplasty. 2nd ed. St Louis: Mosby; 1987.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Han SK, et al. Updated anatomy of the dermocartilaginous ligament of the nose. Ann Plast Surg. 2007;59(4):393–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pitanguy I, et al. The surgical importance of the dermocartilaginous ligament of the nose. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1995;95(5):790–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Han SK, Lee DG, Kim JB, Kim WK. Anatomic study of nasal tip supporting structures. Ann Plast Surg. 2004;52(2):134–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hummel T, Welge-Lüssen A. Taste and smell: an update. Basel: Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers; 2006. p. 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sobel N, Khan RM, Saltman A, Sullivan EV, Gabrieli JD. The world smells different to each nostril. Nature. 1999;402(6757):35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sulsenti G, Palma P. The nasal valve area: structure, function, clinical aspects and treatment. Sulsenti’s technic for correction of valve deformities. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital. 1989;9(Suppl 22):1–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Anderson JR. A reasoned approach to nasal base surgery. Arch Otolaryngol. 1984;11096:349–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gunter JP, Yu YL. The tripod concept for correcting nasal-tip cartilages. Aesth Surg J. 2004;24(3):257–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Converse JM. The cartilaginous structure of the nose. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1955;64(1):220–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ali-Salaam P, Kashgarian M, Persing J. The soft triangle revisited. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2002;110(1):14–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Guyuron B, Ghavami A, Wishnek SM. Components of the short nostril. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2005;116(5):1517–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Howard BK, Rohrich RJ. Understanding the nasal airway: principles and practice. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2002;109(3):1128–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hwang K, Huan F, Kim DJ. Mapping thickness of nasal septal cartilage. J Craniofac Surg. 2010;21(1):243–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mowlavi A, Masouem S, Kalkanis J, et al. Septal cartilage defined: implications for nasal dynamics and rhinoplasty. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2006;117:2171–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sinno S, Chang JB, Saadeh PB, Lee MR. Anatomy and surgical treatment of the depressor septi nasi muscle: a systematic review. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2015 May;135(5):838e–48e.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rohrich RJ, Huynh B, Muzaffar AR, Adams WP Jr, Robinson JB Jr. Importance of the depressor septi nasi muscle in rhinoplasty: anatomic study and clinical application. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2000;105:376–83. discussion 384–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Daniel RK, Letourneau A. Rhinoplasty: nasal anatomy. Ann Plast Surg. 1988 Jan;20(1):5–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lam SM, Williams EF III. Anatomic considerations in aesthetic rhinoplasty. Facial Plast Surg. 2002;18(4):209–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hwang K, Kim DJ, Hwang G. Relationship between depressor septi nasi muscle and dermocartilagenous ligament; anatomic study and clinical application. J Craniofac Surg. 2006;17:286–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Craig JR, Bied A, Landas S, Suryadevara A. Anatomy of the upper lateral cartilage along the lateral pyriform aperture. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2015 Feb;135(2):406–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Schlosser RJ, Park SP. Surgery for the dysfunctional nasal valve cadaveric analysis and clinical outcomes. Arch Facial Plast Surg. 1999;1:105–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Fischer H, Gubisch W. Nasal valves--importance and surgical procedures. Facial Plast Surg. 2006;22(4):266–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Han SK. Surgical anatomy of Korean nose. J Kor Soc Aesth Plast Surg. 2005;11(1):1–9.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lessard M, Daniel RK. Surgical anatomy of septorhinoplasty. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1985;111(1):25–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Downs BW. The inferior turbinate in rhinoplasty. Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2017;25(2):171–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Akoglu E, Karazincir S, Balci A, et al. Evaluation of the turbinate hypertrophy by computed tomography in patients with deviated nasal septum. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007;136:380–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Larrabee WF Jr. The tripod concept. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1989;115(10):1168–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Man Koon Suh
    • 1
  1. 1.JW Plastic Surgery CenterSeoulSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations