Household Energy Consumption in Slum Areas: A Case Study of Tacloban City, Philippines

  • Eric Casimero Oliva
  • Tetsu KubotaEmail author


This chapter presents the results of a survey on household energy consumption in existing slum settlements and the resettlement site in the city of Tacloban, Philippines. The results showed that the household income level in the resettlement site was surprisingly not improved compared to that of the existing slums. It was found that both groups shared almost similar household energy consumption pattern and their annual energy consumption was approximately 19–20 GJ including out-of-home energy consumption. Among all the uses, cooking consumed the highest energy, corresponding to 71% in the existing slums and 74% in the resettlement site. Further results revealed that the households in the resettlement site became more of biomass users (wood fuel) as compared to those in the existing slums.


Household energy consumption Urban slum Developing countries Philippines 



We would like to extend our special thanks to Ms. Doris Secreto of the National Housing Authority (NHA) in Tacloban City for her unsurpassed assistance in doing the legwork at the site while the authors were still in Japan and also to Ms. Rochie of NHA-Main Office for her assistance in gathering data and related information concerning the resettlement projects in the Philippines. After this survey was conducted, Tacloban City was critically devastated by the typhoon, Yolanda, in 2013, causing the deaths of more than six thousands. We sincerely extend our heartfelt condolence for the loss of people in the city.


  1. 1.
    UN-Habitat, Urbanization and Development: Emerging Futures, World Cities Report 2016, United Nations Human Settlements Programme, 2016Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Joseph EF (2003) An evaluation of the resettlement program in the Philippines: the case of Towerville resettlement project. A country Report on the New Town Development and Urban Renewal, National Housing AuthorityGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Munarriz MT (1986) Traditional vs modern behavior in a housing development project: the Tondo foreshore community. Habitat Int 10(3):395–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    PSA (2015) Philippine statistical yearbook, Philippine statistics authority (PSA), Republic of the Philippines, 2015Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    City Planning & Development Office, Tacloban City, Tacloban City Ecological Profile (2009) City Planning & Development Office, Tacloban City, Philippines, 2009Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Unpublished Report, Presidential Commission for the Urban Poor, Tacloban CityGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Oliva EC, Kubota T (2011) Analysis of lifestyle changes in the relocated slum dwellers of Tacloban city, Philippines specially focusing on the energy consumption pattern. In: Proceedings of 11th international congress of Asian planning schools association (APSA 2011), September, Tokyo, 19–21Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Housing Authority, Regional Office No. 8TaclobanPhilippines
  2. 2.Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation (IDEC)Hiroshima UniversityHiroshimaJapan

Personalised recommendations