Biofertilizers Based on Bacterial Endophytes Isolated from Cereals: Potential Solution to Enhance These Crops

  • Lorena Celador-LeraEmail author
  • Alejandro Jiménez-Gómez
  • Esther Menéndez
  • Raul Rivas


Due to the increasing demand for the use of agricultural products, along with new and more restrictive policies regarding the application of fertilizers, the search for alternative ways to increase crop production in a responsible way with respect to the environment is necessary, especially considering that the use of nitrogen-based fertilizers are both very costly and polluting. As regards this chapter focuses on the production of cereals because they represent the most important source of total food consumption, particularly in developing countries with diets based mainly on these types of crops. One possible solution is the application of microbial-based fertilizers (biofertilizers) to enhance crop production. In the literature, bacteria that not only promote plant growth but are also capable of colonizing the interior of plants, known as endophytic bacteria, have been described. Several studies have characterized the different ways of locating these bacteria inside plants, as well as the effects of their colonization. In addition, some entophytes are able to fix nitrogen for their hosts, produce phytohormones (auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins), degrade harmful compounds, decrease the effects of saline stress and improve seed germination, among others benefits. Several companies have attempted to exploit the positive effects caused by endophytic bacteria on their hosts by developing different products, used worldwide (e.g. Inogro®, QuickRoots®), that are based on these types of bacteria. The application of these products occurs despite the governing legislation of the different countries where it is used, and there are usually no specific regulations controlling the process of production, security and marketing of these biofertilizers.


PGPBEs Biofertilization Maize Azospirillum Bioinoculants 



The authors acknowledge financial support provided by the Spanish Government (Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad; MINECO) through the projects AGL2011-29227 and AGL2015-70510-R, by the Junta de Castilla y León (regional government) through the project JCyL SA169U14 and by the Diputación de Salamanca (local government) through the project V113/463AC06. AJG is thankful to a PhD grant from the Spanish Government (Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte). The authors are grateful to Emma Jane Keck for correcting English style.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lorena Celador-Lera
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Alejandro Jiménez-Gómez
    • 1
    • 2
  • Esther Menéndez
    • 3
    • 1
    • 2
  • Raul Rivas
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
  1. 1.Departamento de Microbiología y GenéticaUniversidad de SalamancaSalamancaSpain
  2. 2.Instituto Hispano-Luso de Investigaciones Agrarias (CIALE)SalamancaSpain
  3. 3.ICAAM (Instituto de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais Mediterrânicas)Universidadede ÉvoraÉvoraPortugal
  4. 4.Unidad Asociada Universidad de Salamanca-CSIC (IRNASA)SalamancaSpain

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