Advertisement

Bioremediation of Xenobiotics: An Eco-friendly Cleanup Approach

  • Alok Bharadwaj
Conference paper

Abstract

Xenobiotics are the chemicals, which are not found in nature and are said to be foreign substances in the atmosphere. These compounds are synthesized by human beings e.g. pesticides, that may be added in the soil to kill the harmful pests but in addition this, these pesticides also kill the beneficial microorganisms that are responsible for the fertility of soil. Moreover, these compounds can be accumulated in food chain and cause harm to the flora and fauna of such ecosystem. For the degradation of such xenobiotic compounds various physico-chemical and biological methods have been used but all these methods produce toxic by-products that are hazardous to the environment. Thus Bioremediation is a promising tool for the degradation of such compounds. In the present paper, we have emphasized on the remediation of xenobiotics by using microorganisms. Bacteria and Fungi play an important role in breaking down certain hazardous substances into simpler fragmented forms. Bacteria, which are used for bioremediation of xenobiotics includes aerobic, anaerobic, Methanotrophic, Methanogenic bacteria, Cyanobacteria and Sphingomonads. Pseudomonas species has been used for the degradation of several xenobiotic compounds. In addition to this, certain fungi such as Aspergillus, Rhizopus, Botrytis, Neurospora etc. have been used for the heavy metal biosorption. Hence we can say that fungi are one of the promising tools for the eco-friendly degradation of xenobiotic.

Keywords

Xenobiotics Microorganisms Bioremediation 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Author would like to thanks Prof. A.K. Bhatia, HOD and Prof. Anoop Gupta, Director, Dept. of Biotechnology, GLA University to encourage during this work.

Conflicts of Interest

Author declares no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Gursahani YH, Gupta SG (2011) Decolourization of textile effluent by a thermophilic bacteria Anoxybacillus rupiensis. J Pet Environ Biotechnol 2:111Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sridevi V, Lakshmi MVVC, Swamy AVN, Rao MN (2011) Implementation of response surface methodology for phenol degradation using Pseudomonas putida (NCIM 2102). J Bioremed Biodegrad 2:121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kumar KK, Prasad MK, Sarma GVS, Murthy CVR (2009) Removal of Cd(II) from aqueous solution using immobilized Rhizomucor tauricus. J Microbial Biochem Technol 1:015–021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sinha S, Chattopadhyay P, Pan I, Chatterjee S, Chanda P, Bandyopadhyay D, Das K, Sen SK (2009) Microbial transformation of xenobiotics for environmental bioremediation. Afr J Biotech 8(22):6016–6027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Agarwal N, Shahi SK (2015) An environmental cleanup strategy—microbial transformation of Xenobioti compounds. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci 4(4):429–461Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Varsha YM, Naga Deepthi CH, Chenna S (2011) An emphasis on xenobiotic degradation in environmental cleanup. J Biorem Biodeg 11:1–10Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Janssen DB, Dinkla IJT, Poelarends GJ, Terpstra P (2005) Bacterial degradation of xenobiotic compounds: evolution and distribution of novel enzyme activities. Environ Microbiol 7:1868–1882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Madigan MT, Martinko JM, Parker J (1997) Biology of microorganisms, 8th edn. Prentice Hall, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chowdhury S, Mishra M, Adarsh VK, Mukherjee A, Thakur AR, Chaudhuri SR (2008) Novel metal accumulator and protease secretor microbes from East Calcutta Wetland. Am J Biochem Biotechnol 4:255–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sepahi AA, Golpasha DI, Emami M, Nakhoda MA (2008) Isolation and characterization of crude oil degrading Bacillus spp. Iran J Environ Health Sci Eng 5(3):149–154Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mittal A, Singh P (2009) Isolation of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria from soils contaminated with crude oil spills. Ind J Exp Biol 47:760–765Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Salam LF, Obayori OS, Akashoro OS, Okogie GO (2011) Biodegradation of bonny light crude oil by bacteria isolated from contaminated soil. Int J Agric Biol 13:245–250Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Darsa KV, Thatheyus AJ, Ramya D (2014) Biodegradation of petroleum compound using the bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Sci Inter 20–25Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ghazali FM, Abdul Rahman RNZ, Salleh AB, Basri M (2004) Biodegradation of hydrocarbons in soil by microbial consortium. Int Biodeterio Biodegrad 54:61–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Raza C, Billal A, Jahan N (2010) Evaluation of biodegradation potential of bacteria in crude oil contaminated soil. Biologia 5(1&2):77–85Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sathishkumar M, Binupriya AR, Balk S, Yun S (2008) Biodegradation of crude oil by individual bacterial strains and a mixed bacterial consortium isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated areas. Clean 36(1):92–96Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Khashayar T, Mahsa T (2010) Biodegradation potential of petroleum hydrocarbons by bacterial diversity in soil. Worl Appl Sci J 8(6):750–755Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mbachu AE, Onochie CC, Agu KC, Okafor OI, Awah NS (2014) Hydrocarbon degrading potentials of indigenous bacteria isolated from auto-mechanic workshops at Mgbuka-Nkpor, Nigeria. J Global Biosci 3(1):321–326Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Thenmozhi R, Nagasathya A, Thajuddin N (2011) Studies on biodegradation of used engine oil by consortium cultures. Adv Env Biol 5(6):1051–1057Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Namazi BA, Shojaosadati SA, Najafabadi HS (2008) Biodegradation of used engine oil using mixed and isolated cultures. Int J Env Res 2(4):431–440Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Umanu G, Akpe AR, Omoikhudu AR (2013) Oil degradation assessment of bacteria isolated from used motor oil contaminated soils in OTA, Nigeria. Int J Adv Biol Res 3(4):506–513Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Adebusoye SA, Ilori MO, Amund OO, Teniola OD, Olatope SO (2006) Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a polluted tropical stream. J Am Sci 2(3):48–57Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Geetha SJ, Joshi SJ, Kathrotiya S (2013) Isolation and characterization of hydrocarbon degrading bacterial isolate from oil contaminated sites. In: 4th international conference on environmental science and development—ICESD, APCBEE Procedia, ElsevierGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Santhini K, Myla M, Sajani S, Usharani G (2009) Screening of Micrococcus sp. from oil contaminated soil with reference to bioremediation. Bot Res Inter 2(4):248–252Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Okoh AI (2003) Biodegradation of Bonny light crude oil in soil microcosm by some bacterial strains isolated from crude oil flow stations saver pits in Nigeria. Af J Biotech 2(5):104–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jesubunmi CO (2014) Isolation of oil—degrading microorganisms in spent engine oil—contaminated soil. J Biol Agric Healthcare 4:191–195Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Khan JA, Rizvi SHA (2011) Isolation and characterization of micro-organism from oil contaminated sites. Adv Appl Sci Res 2(3):455–460Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Olajide PO, Ogbeifun LB (2010) Hydrocarbon biodegrading potentials of a Proteus vulgaris strain isolated from fish samples. Am J Appl Sci 7(7):922–928CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jobson A, Cook FD, Westlake DWS (1972) Microbial utilization of oil. Appl Microbiol 23:1082–1089PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mandri T, Lin J (2007) Isolation and characterization of engine oil degrading indigenous microrganisms in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. Af J Biotech 6(1):23–27Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kumari N, Vashishtha A, Saini P, Menghani E (2013) Isolation, identification and characterization of oil degrading bacteria isolated from the contaminated sites of Barmer, Rajasthan. Int J Biotech Bioeng Res 4(5):429–436Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sunita VJ, Dolly PR, Bateja S, Vivek UN (2013) Isolation and screening for hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria (HUB) from petroleum samples. Int J Curr Appl Sci 2(4):48–60Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ismail HY, Ijah UJJ, Riskuwa ML, Allamin II (2014) Biodegradation of spent engine oil by bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of legumes grown in contaminated soil. Int J Env 3(2):63–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hamzah A, Rabu A, Farzarul R, Yussoff NA (2010) Isolation and characterization of bacteria degrading Sumandak and South Angsi oils. Sains Malaysiana 39(2):161–168Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Olawale AK, Akintobi, OA (2011) Biodegradation of glyphosate pesticide by bacteria isolated from agricultural soil, vol 3(1), pp 124–128. http://www.sciencepub.net
  36. 36.
    Barragan-Huerta BE, Costa-Perez C, Peralta-Cruz J, Barrera-Cortes J, Rodriguez-Vazquez Esparza-Garcia F (2010) Biodegradation of organochlorine pesticides by bacteria grown in microniches of the porous structure of green bean coffee. Int Biodeter Biodegr 59:239–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ortiz-Hernández ML, Sanchez-Selinas E (2010) Biodegradation of the organophosphate pesticide tetrachlorvinphos by bacteria isolated from agricultural soils in Mexico. Rev Int Contam Ambient 26(1):27–38Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hindumathy CK, Gayathri V (2013) Effect of pesticide (Chlorpyrifos) on soil microbial flora and pesticide degradation by strains isolated from contaminated soil. J Biodegr Biorem 4(2):1–6Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Akilandeswari K, Sona V (2013) Efficiency of Staphylococcus aureus in the degradation of an organophosphorous pesticide, malathion. J Pharm Sci Innov 2(6):13–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    El-Bestawy E, Sabir J, Mansy AH, Zabermawi N (2014) Comparision of the efficiency of different bioremediation technologies of Atrazine-contaminated soils. J Biorem Biodegr 5:237–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Feuntes MS, Benimeli CS, Cuozza SA, Saezl JM, Amorosa MJ (2010) Microorganisms capable to degrade organochlorine pesticides. Curr Res Tech Educ Top Appl Microbiol Microbiol Biotech 1255–1264Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyGLA UniversityMathuraIndia

Personalised recommendations