Rehabilitative Therapy

  • Mydhili Mayadevi
  • Krishnakumar Thankappan


Rehabilitative therapy involves the oral and oropharyngeal strengthening therapy for dysphagia management. This is based on the complex interplay of the principles of exercises, sensory motor learning, and neuromuscular functional interrelationships. Several studies support the use of strengthening exercises in its application in swallowing rehabilitation [1–3].

Supplementary material

Video 11.1

(MP4 43913 kb)

Video 11.2

(MP4 37823 kb)

Video 11.3

(MP4 39059 kb)

Video 11.4

(MP4 30291 kb)

Video 11.5

(MP4 32356 kb)

Video 11.6

(MP4 49255 kb)

Video 11.7

(MP4 24877 kb)

Video 11.8

(MP4 85711 kb)

Video 11.9

(MP4 88405 kb)

Video 11.10

(MP4 46573 kb)

Video 11.11

(MP4 43022 kb)

Video 11.12

(MP4 20426 kb)

Video 11.13

(MP4 56408 kb)


  1. 1.
    Robbins J, Gangnon R, Theis S, Kays SA, Hind J. The effects of lingual exercise on swallowing in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005;53:1483–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lazarus C, Logemann J, Huang C, Rademaker A. Effects of two types of tongue strengthening exercises in young normals. Folia Phoniatr Logop. 2003;55:199–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Clark HM, O’Brien K, Calleja A, Corrie SN. Effects of directional exercise on lingual strength. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2009;52:1034–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Shaw C, McEachern J. Toward a theory of neuroplasticity. Hove: Psychology Press; 2001.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kleim JA, Jones TA. Principles of experience-dependent neural plasticity: implications for rehabilitation after brain damage. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2008;51:S225–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Azola AM, Greene LR, Taylor-Kamara I, Macrae P, Anderson C, Humbert IA. The relationship between submental surface electromyography and hyo-laryngeal kinematic measures of Mendelsohn maneuver duration. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2015;58:1627–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hoffman MR, Mielens JD, Ciucci MR, Jones CA, Jiang JJ, McCulloch TM. High-resolution manometry of pharyngeal swallow pressure events associated with effortful swallow and the Mendelsohn maneuver. Dysphagia. 2012;27:418–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kahrilas PJ, Logemann JA, Krugler C, et al. Volitional augmentation of upper esophageal sphincter opening during swallowing. Am J Phys. 1991;260:G450–6.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lazarus CL, Logemann JA, Song CW, et al. Effects of voluntary’ maneuvers on tongue base function for swallowing. Folia Phoniatr Logop. 2002;54:171–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lazarus C, Logemann JA, Gibbons P. Effects of maneuvers on swallow functioning in a dysphagic oral cancer patient. Head Neck. 1993;15:419–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fujiwara S, Ono T, Minagi Y, et al. Effect of Supraglottic and super-supraglottic swallows on tongue pressure production against hard palate. Dysphagia. 2014;2:655–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kotz T, Costello R, Li Y, Posner MR. Swallowing dysfunction after chemoradiation for advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Head Neck. 2004;26:365–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kulbersh BD, Rosenthal EL, McGrew BM, et al. Pretreatment, preoperative swallowing exercises may improve dysphagia quality of life. Laryngoscope. 2006;116:883–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Malandraki GA, Hind JA, Gangnon R, Logemann JA, Robbins J. The utility of pitch elevation in the evaluation of oropharyngeal dysphagia: preliminary findings. Am J Speech Lang Pathol. 2011;20:262–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fujiu M, Logemann JA. Effect of a tongue-holding maneuver on posterior pharyngeal wall movement during deglutition. Am J Speech Lang Pathol. 1996;5:23–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fujiu M, Logemann JA, Pauloski BR. Increased postoperative posterior pharyngeal wall movement in patients with anterior oral cancer: preliminary findings and possible implications for treatment. Am J Speech Lang Pathol. 1995;4:24–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shaker R, Kern M, Bardan E, et al. Augmentation of deglutitive upper esophageal sphincter opening in the elderly by exercise. Am J Phys. 1997;272:G1518–22.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Shaker R, Easterling C, Kern M, et al. Rehabilitation of swallowing by exercise in tube-fed patients with pharyngeal dysphagia secondary to abnormal UES opening. Gastroenterology. 2002;122:1314–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Easterling C, Grande B, Kern M, Sears K, Shaker R. Attaining and maintaining isometric and isokinetic goals of the Shaker exercise. Dysphagia. 2005;20:133–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Logemann JA, Rademaker A, Pauloski BR, et al. A randomized study comparing the Shaker exercise with traditional therapy: a preliminary study. Dysphagia. 2009;24:403–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Leder SB, Suiter DM, Murray J, Rademaker AW. Can an oral mechanism examination contribute to the assessment of odds of aspiration? Dysphagia. 2013;28:370–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Murray KA, Larson CR, Logemann JA. Electromyographic response of the labial muscles during normal liquid swallows using a spoon, a straw, and a cup. Dysphagia. 1998;13:160–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Stierwalt JA, Youmans SR. Tongue measures in individuals with normal and impaired swallowing. Am J Speech Lang Pathol. 2007;16:148–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Veis S, Logemann JA, Colangelo L. Effects of three techniques on maximum posterior movement of the tongue base. Dysphagia. 2000;15:142–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mydhili Mayadevi
    • 1
  • Krishnakumar Thankappan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Head and Neck Surgery and OncologyAmrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Amrita Vishwa VidyapeethamKochiIndia

Personalised recommendations