Advertisement

Special Stains for the Carbohydrate, Protein, Lipid, Nucleic Acid and Pigments

  • Pranab Dey
Chapter

Abstract

The various special stains are now the essential parts in routine laboratory works. The indications of special stains include demonstration of the various cellular products for diagnosis, identification of microbial organisms and also estimation of DNA and RNA content of the cell. The present chapter discusses on the various cellular products such as simple carbohydrate, mucin and fats. The principle and the steps of techniques to demonstrate those products are described in detail. The various organic and inorganic pigments are present in our body. The pigments may be endogenous or exogenous in origin. The chapter presents the staining techniques of different pigments on the histology tissue section.

Keywords

Special stain Carbohydrate Mucin Lipid Nucleic acid DNA Pigments PAS Alcian blue Mucicarmine Methyl green-pyronin Perls’ reaction Fouchet’s stain Grimelius stain 

References

  1. 1.
    McManus JFA. Histological demonstration of mucin after periodic acid. Nature. 1946;158:202.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Southgate HW. Notes on preparing mucicarmine. J Pathol Bacteriol. 1927;30:729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lillie RD, Ashburn LL. Supersaturated solutions of fat stains in dilute isopropanol for demonstration of acute fatty degeneration not shown by Herxheimer’s technique. Arch Pathol. 1943;36:432–40.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sheehan DC, Hrapchak BB. Theory and practice of histotechnology. 2nd ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 1980. p. 204–5.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Elleder M, Lojda Z. Studies in lipid histochemistry. XI. New, rapid, simple and selective method for the demonstration of phospholipids. Histochemie. 1973;36(2):149–66.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Delamater ED, Mescon H, Barger JD. The chemistry of the Feulgen reaction and related histo- and cytochemical methods. J Invest Dermatol. 1950;14(2):133–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Unna PG. Eine Modifikation der Pappenheimschen Farbung auf Granoplasma. Monatshefte für Praktische Dermatologie. 1902;35:76.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hall MJ. A staining reaction for bilirubin in sections of tissue. Am J Clin Pathol. 1960;34:313–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Grimelius L. A silver nitrate stain for alpha-2 cells in human pancreatic islets. Acta Soc Med Ups. 1968;73(5–6):243–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lillie RD. Histopathologic technique and practical histochemistry. 2nd ed. New York: Blakiston; 1954.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    von Kossa J. Ueber die im Organismus kunstlich erzeugbaren Verkalkungen. Beit Path Anat Allg Pathol. 1901;29:163.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Meloan SN, Puchtler H. Chemical mechanisms of staining methods: Von Kossa’s technique: what von Kossa really wrote and a modified reaction for selective demonstration of inorganic phosphates. J Histotechol. 1985;8:11–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Corfield AP. Mucins: a biologically relevant glycan barrier in mucosal protection. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015;1850(1):236–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lau SK, Weiss LM, Chu PG. Differential expression of MUC1, MUC2, and MUC5AC in carcinomas of various sites: an immunohistochemical study. Am J Clin Pathol. 2004;122(1):61–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gendler SJ, Spicer AP. Epithelial mucin genes. Annu Rev Physiol. 1995;57:607–34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pranab Dey
    • 1
  1. 1.Education and Research (PGIMER)Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER)ChandigarhIndia

Personalised recommendations