Pathologic Myopia and Retinal Detachment

  • Liqin Gao
  • Nan Zhou
  • Wenbin WeiEmail author


Pathologic myopia (PM) is described as myopia accompanied by excessive axial elongation of the globe and characteristic degenerative changes in the posterior segment, with posterior staphyloma as an important hallmark lesion. Myopia is a complex disease and the etiology of myopia is not clearly understood. The pathogenesis of pathologic myopia is possibly related with biomechanics. It is believed that the excessive elongation of the globe and sclera staphyloma are the most important factors in the development of these degenerative changes in pathologic myopia. Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment is a commom complication of pathologic myopia.


  1. 1.
    Curtin BJ. The posterior staphyloma of pathologic myopia. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1977;75:67–86.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wu JF, Bi HS, Wang SM, et al. Refractive error, visual acuity and causes of vision loss in children in Shandong, China. The Shandong Children Eye Study. PLoS One. 2013;8(12):82763.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Xu L, Li Y, Wang S, Wang Y, et al. Characteristics of highly myopic eyes: the Beijing Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2007;114(1):121–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kempen JH, Mitchell P, Lee KE, et al. The prevalence of refractive errors among adults in the United States, Western Europe, and Australia. Arch Ophthalmol. 2004;122(4):495–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Liang YB, Friedman DS, Wong TY, et al. Prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness in a rural Chinese adult population: the Handan Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2008;115(11):1965–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Moriyama M, Ohno-Matsui K, Hayashi K, et al. Topographic analyses of shape of eyes with pathologic myopia by high-resolution three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging. Ophthalmology. 2011;118(8):1626–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ohno-Matsui K, Kawasaki R, Jonas JB, et al. International photographic classification and grading system for myopic maculopathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 2015;159(5):877–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hyung SM, Kim DM, Hong C, et al. Optic disc of the myopic eye: relationship between refractive errors and morphometric characteristics. Korean J Ophthalmol. 1992;6(1):32–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ohno-Matsui K, Lai TYY, Lai CC, et al. Updates of pathologic myopia. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2016;52:156–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Huang WH, Ohno-Matsui K, Shimada N, et al. Clinical characteristics of posterior staphyloma in eyes with pathologic myopia. Am J Ophthalmol. 2008;146(1):102–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kobayashi K, Ohno-Matsui K, Kojima A, et al. Fundus characteristics of high myopia in children. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2005;49(4):306–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ohno-Matsui K, Yoshida T. Myopic choroidal neovascularization: natural course and treatment. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2004;15(3):197–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Klein RM, Green S. The development of lacquer cracks in pathologic myopia. Am J Ophthalmol. 1988;106(3):282–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wang S, Xu L, Jonas JB, et al. Prevalence of full-thickness macular holes in urban and rural adult Chinese the Beijing Eye Study. Am J Ophthalmol. 2006;141(3):589–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Benhamou N, Massin P, Haouchine B, et al. Macular retinoschisis in highly myopic eyes. Am J Ophthalmol. 2002;133(6):794–800.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Akiba J. Prevalence of posterior vitreous detachment in high myopia. Ophthalmology. 1993;100(9):1384–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    The Eye Disease Case Control Study Group. Risk factors for idiopathic rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Am J Epidemiol. 1993;137(7):749–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Stirpe M, Heimann K. Vitreous changes and retinal detachment in highly myopic eyes. Eur J Ophthalmol. 1996;6(1):50–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Marcus MW, de Vries MM, Junoy Montolio FG, et al. Myopia as a risk factor for open-angle glaucoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ophthalmology. 2011;118(10):1989–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Saw SM, Gazzard G, Shih-Yen EC, et al. Myopia and associated pathological complications. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2005;25(5):381–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lim R, Mitchell P, Cumming RG. Refractive associations with cataract: the Blue Mountains eye study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1999;40(12):3021–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. and Beijing Science and Technology Press 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical UniversityBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations