Nutrient Management Strategies for Improving Soil Health and Productivity of Ravine Lands

  • S. K. Verma
  • Anil Kumar Singh


The deep ravine of Chambal is the most fragile stressed ecosystem and suffers heavily because of erosion. The soils of this region are sandy loam with very little organic matter and very poor binding capacity. There are tremendous soil (> 30 Mg ha−1 year−1), water (> 70% of rainfall), and nutrient (> 350 kg of NPK year−1) losses during rainy season, and this problem is still aggravating to the farmers by spreading to fertile lands. The loosely held soil particles favor high infiltration rate (> 7 cm h−1), and the high elevation differences between land and riverbed are catalyzing reason to create a high gradient for gushing underground water current toward the river which carries soil and water with it. The formation of ravine is a hydraulic energy-generated phenomenon, and it can be cured only after a clear understanding of how to minimize hydraulic gradient and hydrodynamic pressures. Further, advancement of ravine can be checked very easily by adopting indigenous and innovative technologies based on energy concept. Multistep leveling is one of the very recent and innovative technologies and is economically viable with almost checking all kinds of losses, whereas improvised gabion structure is a very economical and suitable conservation method to check/minimize soil and water losses under ravine conditions. Adoption of various kinds of modules also helped in minimizing natural losses among them. Silvopastoral and silvi-medicinal systems are very effective from point of conservations, while agro-horti, agroforestry, silvopastoral, and silvi-medicinal modules are most feasible under ravine conditions and are efficient in the order mentioned.


  1. Angima SD, Angima DE, Stott MK, Neill O, Ong CK, Weesies GA (2003) Soil erosion prediction using RUSLE for central Kenyan highland conditions: agriculture. Ecosyst Environ 97:295–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Argal MS (2017) Effect of organic and inorganic sources of plant nutrients on wheat production and soil health in Chambal Ravine, Ph.D. thesis submitted to Rajmata Vijayaraje Scindia Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Gwalior (M.P)Google Scholar
  3. Argal MS, Verma SK, Sunil-Rajput (2017a) Effect of nutrient management on soil health and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production in degraded land of Chambal ravine. Indian Agric (in press)Google Scholar
  4. Argal MS, Verma SK, Tomar PS (2017b) Nutrient management options in ravine of Chambal and its effects on growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Int J Agric Environ Biotechnol 10(2):1–10Google Scholar
  5. Bates RL Julia JA (1984) Dictionary of geological terms prepared by the American Geological Institute. ISBN 0-385-18101-9. New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. Doran JW, Parkin TB (1994) Defining soil quality for a sustainable environment. Published by Soil Science Society of America and American Society of Agronomy 35Google Scholar
  7. Hasebe A, Kanajava S, Takai Y (1985) Microbial biomass in paddy soil: II microbial biomass C measured by Jenkinsons fumigation method. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 34:349–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Maji AK, Reddy GPO, Sarkar D (2010) Degraded and wastelands of India: status and special distribution. Directorate of information and publications of agriculture. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, p 158Google Scholar
  9. Oldeman LR (1994) The global extent of soil degradation. In: Greenland DJ, Szabolcs I (eds) Soil resilience and sustainable land use. CAB International, Wallingford, pp 99–118Google Scholar
  10. Pimentel D (2000) Genetically modified crops and the agroecosystem: comments on “Genetically modified crops: risks and promise” by Gordon Conway. Conserv Ecol 4(1):10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Sharda VN, Dogra P, Prakash C (2010) Assessment of production losses due to water erosion in rainfed areas of India. J Soil Water Conserv 65:79–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Verma SK, Akhilesh S, Tomar PS (2016) Management of Chambal ravines for food and environment security. Technical Bulletin No. RVSKVV/61/2016. Rajmata Vijyaraje Scindia Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, GwaliorGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. K. Verma
    • 1
  • Anil Kumar Singh
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Soil Science & Agricultural ChemistryRVSKVV, Vishwa VidyalayaGwaliorIndia
  2. 2.RVS Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, R. V. S.GwaliorIndia

Personalised recommendations