Forest and Fruit Trees-based Agroforestry Systems for Productive Utilization of Ravine Lands

  • A. K. Parandiyal
  • R. Kaushal
  • O. P. Chaturvedi


Among the various forms of land degradation, ravines are the worst manifestation of terrain deformation by water. The land degradation due to ravines is a major problem along several river systems in the alluvial zones. These may extend up to 2–3 km in to the tablelands, and vast areas go out of cultivation due to the process of degradation. It has been estimated that about 3.7 million hectares of land has been affected by gully erosion along several river systems in the alluvial zones in India. Since land resources are finite, requisite measures are required to reclaim degraded and wastelands so that areas going out of cultivation due to social and economic reasons are replenished by reclaiming these lands and by arresting further loss of production potential. Agroforestry as a traditional land-use adaptation may potentially support livelihood improvement through simultaneous production of food, fruit, fodder and firewood as well as mitigation of the impact of land degradation. Rehabilitation of ravine lands involves treatment of table- and marginal lands contributing runoff to the gullies and economic utilization of gullied ravines. It requires an integrated approach of using gullies per land capability classes, soil and water conservation measures and putting land under permanent vegetation cover involving afforestation, agroforestry, horticulture, pastures and energy plantations. Selection of species of trees/shrubs/grasses is important in ravine rehabilitation efforts.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. K. Parandiyal
    • 1
  • R. Kaushal
    • 2
  • O. P. Chaturvedi
    • 3
  1. 1.ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Research CentreAgraIndia
  2. 2.ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil and Water ConservationDehradunIndia
  3. 3.ICAR-Central Agroforestry Research InstituteJhansiIndia

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